EVP

  1. Describe the difference between 2 or more behavior change models.  Cite examples from the literature of the use of your compared behavior change models in practice.  How does the use of these models relate to population health?
  2. Post a journal article from a peer-reviewed publication describing a quality improvement project.  Identify AND define, in paragraph form, the epidemiologic science used to formulate or identify the problem and its significance for the project. Be sure to add the definition of the epidemiology used. Further, identify the study design used for the project.  Your post should include a link to or copy of the article.

Answer:

There are several behavior change models that are widely used to understand and improve health behaviors, including the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), the Health Belief Model (HBM), and the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT).

TTM views behavior change as a process of stages, moving from precontemplation to contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. HBM focuses on the individual’s perception of their health threat and the perceived benefits and barriers to change. SCT emphasizes the role of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors in shaping health behaviors.

Examples of the use of these models in practice can be seen in a study on promoting physical activity among older adults, which applied TTM and SCT to develop a multi-component intervention to increase physical activity levels. Another study used HBM to understand why individuals do not use sun protection behaviors, and developed an intervention to address these barriers.

The use of behavior change models in population health is important as it helps to identify the factors that influence health behaviors and to develop effective interventions to improve health outcomes. By understanding the underlying mechanisms of behavior change, public health professionals can design targeted and effective interventions to promote healthy behaviors and reduce health disparities.

One example of a quality improvement project that used epidemiology is “Development and Implementation of an Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Program in a Skilled Nursing Facility” by Andrade et al. (2019) The article can be found here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826260/

In this project, the authors used epidemiology to formulate the problem by analyzing the incidence and impact of falls in the skilled nursing facility. They used a descriptive epidemiology approach to identify the demographic and clinical characteristics of residents who were at higher risk of falls. The authors found that older age, male gender, and the presence of certain medical conditions were associated with an increased risk of falls.

The study design used in this project was a quality improvement project, in which the authors implemented a multi-faceted falls prevention program based on best practices and evaluated its impact on reducing the incidence of falls. The program included various components such as education for residents and staff, environmental modifications, and individualized care plans for high-risk residents.

The epidemiology used in this project helped to identify the problem and target the intervention to those at highest risk, thereby contributing to the overall goal of improving population health by reducing falls and related injuries in the skilled nursing facility.

 

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