Alzheimers Disease

Discuss about the Alzheimers Disease.

Introduction

Alzheimer disease has a general characterization of having a progressive decline of the cognitive functions of an individual. (Alzheimer Association, 2014). It will substantially have an increase among people of the age 65 years and above, the gradual decrease of the memory, language, and thinking and the learning capacity will be having a vast effect on the patient. (Alzheimer Association, 2014). In a different aspect, it should be in a proper differentiation of the AD and the standard age-relation issue of declining of the cognitive functioning of an individual. In this relation, there is a gradual and an association of fewer disability cases. (Alzheimer Association, 2014). It will always have a starting point from primarily mild symptoms of decline and having an end of severe damage of the brain functionality. (Alzheimer Association, 2014). Thus the individuals or patients in affection have a different degree of loss of the ability at various apparent rates.

Regarding looking the pathophysiology of the disease, it has a relation to the minor injury and also a death of the neurons. (Nation Center, 2015). It has an initiation in the hippocampus region of the brain which is the part in the involvement of memory and the learning activities of an individual. (Nation Center, 2015). Mostly the atrophy will have an effect on the entire brain in accordance to the chemistry of the neurological damage. (National Center, 2015). The amyloid beta, which is a short peptide which is having an abnormal proteolytic waste in the transmembrane, thus the protein precursor will have a functionality to remove the thoughts. (Nation Centre, 2014). When it becomes unresponsive it is malfunctioning, then it leads to an unclear neural development of the patient’s brain. (Nation Center, 2015).

A scientist through researches have it that some of the risk factors in association with AD will include the age of the individual, the relation in this is that when one reaches the age of 65, they are likely to have Alzheimer. (Alzheimer Association, 2014). The other bit about this is the family history of the individual and the actual reality that one member of the household has Alzheimer then the chances to get it will depend on the genetic inheritance of the individual member of the household. Environmental changes also have an effect in causing the disease. (Alzheimer Association, 2014).

In the disease of Alzheimer, there is a relative abnormality in the aggregation of a protein known as tau. (Speroni et.al, 2014). It is a microtubule association of a protein which will have an overall expression of the neurons. (Speroni et.al, 2014). In current evidence in place, there is an indication of general changes in the CFS levels which in turn have an effect on the ultimate concentration of the other proteins.  A general mechanism is in realization which has an effect of bringing about the formation of senile plaques; this step also affects the neurofibrillary tangles which are in place. (Figueirio et.al, 2014). When consideration is the pathological evidence as well as the clinical evidence, an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine accumulations is in realization in the blood. Thus the AD will remain to be in a general understanding which has the implication of the pathogenesis of the disease and the progression.

Assessment of Alzheimer

Disease progression has to be in a close monitoring to be able to decide on a most probable method to undertake for the patient. (Speroni et.al, 2014). Most of the AD clinical spectrum have an almost residing on a continuum, which implies that the initial symptoms are merely visible thus not readily detectable. (Speroni et.al, 2014). The later symptoms have a more sophisticated and possibly detectable trait, a confirmation of the AD diseases is not that at a uniform progression which takes the implication of rates which will tend to decline and have a variation at a wide range.  In early detection techniques, a manifestation of the general results may be a variation in memory loss and the progression of language communications disability impairments. In this context, unlike the general cognitive disability impairments, they will not be dominant in the early stages of diagnosis. (Speroni et.al, 2014).

 Some staging tools are in place to be able to make the studying of AD more proficient. While employing the adaptation tools, predictions and future referencing of the symptoms identification. Clinical trials put forward in the AD stage devices have an inclusion criterion which helps in the definition of the severity of the patient and the population in the study. (Speroni et.al, 2014). The most staging tools in use have an inclusion of Mini-mental state examination. It will employ the utilization of probable extensive assessment methods in cognitive functionality which has an ascension of both clinical practices and general clinical trials. (Speroni et.al, 2014). A working functional assessment staging tool will enable early identification of the infection, and possible action is in administration. It will significantly influence the way the patience will be in treatment.

When trying to have an ideal definition of the general moderate and severe move to have AD as a good definition which encompasses the fundamental domain of the cognition, functionality, and behavioral definition. (Dysken et.al, 2014). However in the general heterogeneous nature of the AD in an association of the symptoms. (Dysken et.al, 2014). An illustration of figure 1 has overall highlights of a variable range of narrow definitions of a discrete stage as a progression of the whole assessment. In spite the overall challenges, a method has been in use where the operational definitions are to have surrogate markers of the severity in a summary. (Dysken et.al, 2014).

The clinical review has a supportive decision to have an initiation; it tries to maintain a pure treatment reverberation to be able to moderate-severe cases of AD. (Erick et.al, 2014). The clinical methods have a way to reduce cases of acute of AD, in the population. Preservation of the cognitive functionalities and abilities are in a position to have an improvement. ((Erick et.al, 2014). To a large extent, a most of the conservation advancements, a rather more important can have a diagnosis in a hectic way instead of losing the whole process. (Alzheimer Association, 2014). Most of the Alzheimer patients will tend to have way beyond all the moderate stages of the disease, a usual way of having the abilities to be worth the preservation is the need to have implementation and a focus on the urge to optimize the patient’s autonomy and their general quality of life.( Erick et.al, 2014).

 Patients who are in a diagnosis of a severe with an advancement of AD, a review study tries to make an emphasis in the necessity to have a specialization in the overall scales in use to have a designation of a more implacable detective changes in the general treatment of the individual’s condition. (Dysken et.al, 2014). ADAS-cog is in use to be as an example to the ability to make a track on the cognitive declination of the patient’s limitations to have the application of the domains. (Erick et.al, 2014). Clinically minor changes have a large effect in the treatment for it has a general realization.

The Significance of Nursing Care to Alzheimer Patients.

The ultimate goal of nursing care is to promote healing and reduce the burden of suffering from illness, and this is by employing practices which act as a way of fostering and having respect for all. (Vondovoot et.al, 2014). In the new nursing care personalities much has been on the verge to change. The changes are in the treatment of the people with Alzheimer and the general care of this individuals. (Vondvoot et.al, 2014). The attention has been given the attribute to geriatric care personnel. The ultimate tools will be in a zero and beyond recognition to have all aspects work correctly. Most of the nursing staff will be in association with some organization rather than being an individual. Every nursing care team has to come out clear to teach and educate all its members to be able to prepare the best services to the patients.

The first aspect is to be able to counter and configure the patient’s function which will imply that, the patient functioning will be at a maximum rank of having an independence and a consistent physical attribution of a potential patient and the caregiver. (Dysken, et.al, 2014). A caregiver support will have the identification of the information given during the training. The pathway of an outcome of the goal of patients function has an initial identification phase where the patient’s functions have a maximum level of a general independence. (Callahan et.al, 2014). It will lead to a consistent relation to the caregiver and the patient. It is nice to have a visualizing it from the aspect of longitudinal monitoring and the treatment phase of it a solution if to be in realization. (Dunphy et.al, 2015). The patient tries to maintain a target of relevant functional levels. At the end of the period, which is the end of life phase, the patients or the nursing personnel have a complete satisfaction which has a constitution of an approach of having a general use to the functional needs. (Callahan et.al, 2014).

Nursing Care Strategies to Meet the Goals

When the access to the healthcare is expanding then, there is improve the quality of care and an autonomous reduction in the cost, this have been long time goals. The activities which are in place to ensure the goals are in place include harnessing for technology. (Callahan et.al, 2014). The nurses have an extensive provision of an in-depth analysis of the major conceptual changing healthcare environment. Thus a close relation of the nursing caregivers and the patient will make the achievement of the goal which is to provide an excellent medical service and reducing the pain of the individuals. (Callahan et.al, 2014).

An inclusion of this is among the diagnosis and treating the disease. (Speroni et.al, 2014). When a primary care physician is in place, then they are not in limitation to their provision rather an extension can be having a list of the leading individuals who will be able to diagnose and treat. (Birks and Grimley, 2015). With this type of implementation, referrals can be which will lead to having a sure goal of the patients getting appropriate and timely care. Another effective way which is under modification to be able to realize a real goal achievement in the nursing care is the change in the policies to be able to allow the insurance and reimbursement cover services to click in place for and essential diagnosis and treatment. (Birks and Grimley, 2015).

It is a good turn out to have longer patient’s consultations which will have an attribute of getting much information from the patients to be able to provide quality service in the caring of the patients. (Birks and Grimley, 2015). Educating the nursing personnel is one significant activity to be in a position to equip them will the relevant information for acting upon the plan. (Callahan et.al, 2014). When it is useful in education then it a natural anticipation of having an additional helping knowledge about the infection. The fostering of recognition of the disease is a way to have a realization of how fast a reaction should be made in a particular patient to enable handling of the infection much easier. 

Dementia being a complicated disease proves hard to control, but much strategic management has been in employment to be a good revelation of the outcome control. (Doengens et.al, 2014). The ultimate solution is the establishment of personalities that will check into the behavioral changes which are a good way to have a key response to all the action.(Touchon et.al, 2015). An eventual action of inability to carry out the performance of the regular activities will lead to much higher dependence rates of the individuals suffering. (Birks and Grimley, 2015). As a different aspect to have a clear argument, functional impairments will give rise to a deterioration of the care by the medical personnel. (Beerens et.al, 2014). It is later at a linking to an increase in the patients in general who will be a reinforcement of becoming an institutionalization of a concept. (Touchon et.al, 2015). When this is not into consideration, then there are high chances of the patients to remain in relatively high chances of the patients to remain in severe stages of the AD for longer times. (Touchon et.al, 2015).

Conclusion

Medication is part of the urge to have all the patients being into a service to get them escape the side effects which are in association with the illness. (Vandervoot et.al, 2014). Thus the medication-induction of dementia is one of the most frequent methods to try and get almost reversible dementia. One of the anticipations in use to rule out the medication is the introduction of a thorough drug history from the patients in a review to all the current methods under the prescription.

References

Alzheimer’s Association. (2014). 2014 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 10(2), e47-e92.

Beerens, H. C., Sutcliffe, C., Renom-Guiteras, A., Soto, M. E., Suhonen, R., Zabalegui, A., …& RightTimePlaceCare Consortium. (2014). Quality of life and quality of care for people with dementia receiving long term institutional care or professional home care: the European RightTimePlaceCare study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 15(1), 54-61.

Birks, J. S., & Grimley Evans, J. (2015). Rivastigmine for Alzheimer’s disease. The Cochrane Library.

Callahan, C. M., Sachs, G. A., LaMantia, M. A., Unroe, K. T., Arling, G., & Boustani, M. A.(2014). Redesigning systems of care for older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Health Affairs, 33(4), 626-632.

Doenges, M. E., Moorhouse, M. F., & Murr, A. C. (2014). Nursing care plans: Guidelines for individualizing client care across the life span. FA Davis.

Dysken, M. W., Sano, M., Asthana, S., Vertrees, J. E., Pallaki, M., Llorente, M., … & Prieto, (2014). Effect of vitamin E and memantine on functional decline in Alzheimer disease: the TEAM-AD VA cooperative randomized trial.Jama,311(1), 33-44.

Dunphy, L. M., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B., & Thomas, D. (2015). Primary Care: Art and Science of Advanced Practice Nursing. FA Davis.

Eric De Jonge, K., Jamshed, N., Gilden, D., Kubisiak, J., Bruce, S. R., & Taler, G. (2014).

Effects of Home‐Based Primary Care on Medicare Costs in High‐Risk Elders. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(10), 1825-1831.

Figueiro, M. G., Plitnick, B. A., Lok, A., Jones, G. E., Higgins, P., Hornick, T. R., & Rea, M.(2014). Tailored lighting intervention improves measures of sleep, depression, and agitation in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia living in long-term care facilities.Clin Interv Aging,9, 1527-1537.

Galik, E., Resnick, B., Hammersla, M., & Brightwater, J. (2014). Optimizing function and physical activity among nursing home residents with dementia: Testing the impact of function-focused care. The Gerontologist,54(6), 930-943.

Graneheim, U. H., Johansson, A., & Lindgren, B. M. (2014). Family caregivers’ experiences of relinquishing the care of a person with dementia to a nursing home: Insights from a meta‐ethnographic study.Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 28(2), 215-224.

Inouye, S. K., Westendorp, R. G., & Saczynski, J. S. (2014). Delirium in elderly people. The Lancet, 383(9920), 911-922.

Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L. (2015). Medical-surgical nursing: Patient-centered collaborative care. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Lehne, R. A., & Rosenthal, L. (2014). Pharmacology for nursing care. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Nakanishi, M., & Nakashima, T. (2014). Features of the Japanese national dementia strategy in comparison with international dementia policies: How should a national dementia policy interact with the public health-and social-care systems?. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 10(4), 468-476.

National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control, & Preventi (Eds.) (2015). Health, United States, 2013, with special feature on prescription drugs. Government Printing Office.

Speroni, K. G., Fitch, T., Dawson, E., Dugan, L., & Atherton, M. (2014). Incidence and cost of nurse workplace violence perpetrated by hospital patients or patient visitors. Journal of emergency nursing, 40(3), 218-228.

Touchon, J., Lachaine, J., Beauchemin, C., Granghaud, A., Rive, B., & Bineau, S. (2014). The impact of memantine in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on admission of patients with Alzheimer’s disease to nursing homes: cost-effectiveness analysis in France. The European Journal of Health Economics, 15(8), 791-800.

Vandervoort, A., Houttekier, D., Vander Stichele, R., van der Steen, J. T., & Van den Block, (2014). Quality of dying in nursing home residents dying with dementia: does advanced care planning matter? A nationwide postmortem study.PloS one,9(3), e91130.

Westermann, C., Kozak, A., Harling, M., & Nienhaus, A. (2014). Burnout intervention studies for inpatient elderly care nursing staff: Systematic literature review. International journal of nursing studies, 51(1), 63-71.

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