Crime Occurrence Evaluation Research Paper

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper analyzing how crime is defined based on three prominent views in term of criminal behavior. Provide an explanation of the occurrence of crime by outlining the main assumptions of the consensus view, conflict view and interactionist view. In your paper, be sure to include the following:

  • What are the current trends in the crime rate?
  • What social and environmental factors do you believe influence the crime rate?
  • Identify any other factors you think may contribute to criminal behavior and the crime rate.
  • Explain how you would investigate the occurrence of crime through research and theory development.
  • Describe the various sources of crime data along with the advantages and disadvantages to collecting data from each source.
  • Briefly explain the importance of crime research in the development of recidivism reduction strategies or crime prevention policies.


Title: Understanding Crime: Perspectives and Influencing Factors


Crime is a complex social phenomenon that is defined and understood differently based on various theoretical perspectives. This paper aims to analyze how crime is defined based on three prominent views in terms of criminal behavior: the consensus view, conflict view, and interactionist view. Additionally, it will discuss current trends in the crime rate, social and environmental factors influencing crime, other contributing factors to criminal behavior, methods of investigating crime through research and theory development, sources of crime data, and the importance of crime research in developing recidivism reduction strategies and crime prevention policies.

  1. Definitions of Crime Based on Three Prominent Views:a. Consensus View:
    • Assumption: The consensus view suggests that laws represent the collective conscience of society, reflecting shared values, norms, and beliefs. Crime is defined as any behavior that violates these societal norms and threatens social cohesion.
    • Focus: This perspective emphasizes the importance of social order and stability, viewing crime as a disruption to the consensus or agreement on acceptable behavior.

    b. Conflict View:

    • Assumption: The conflict view posits that laws are instruments of the ruling class to maintain power and control over the oppressed classes. Crime is defined as actions that challenge or resist oppressive social structures and inequalities.
    • Focus: This perspective highlights the role of power dynamics, social inequality, and exploitation in shaping definitions of crime and criminal behavior.

    c. Interactionist View:

    • Assumption: The interactionist view examines how individuals and groups construct meanings and interpretations of behavior through social interactions. Crime is defined as behavior that is labeled and stigmatized by society.
    • Focus: This perspective emphasizes the significance of societal reactions and labeling processes in shaping perceptions of crime and criminal identity.
  2. Current Trends in the Crime Rate:
    • The crime rate fluctuates over time and varies across different regions and demographic groups.
    • Recent trends indicate a decline in some types of crime, such as property crime, while others, like certain forms of cybercrime or hate crimes, may be on the rise.
    • Factors contributing to changes in the crime rate include shifts in economic conditions, changes in law enforcement strategies, social and cultural influences, and advancements in technology.
  3. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing the Crime Rate:
    • Economic inequality and poverty can create conditions conducive to crime by limiting opportunities for social mobility and exacerbating feelings of frustration and resentment.
    • Social disorganization, characterized by weakened social bonds and community cohesion, can lead to higher crime rates in neighborhoods with limited social support networks.
    • Family dynamics, peer influences, educational opportunities, and exposure to violence and substance abuse are additional factors that can influence individuals’ likelihood of engaging in criminal behavior.
  4. Other Factors Contributing to Criminal Behavior and Crime Rate:
    • Psychological factors, such as personality traits, cognitive biases, and mental health disorders, can contribute to individuals’ propensity to commit crimes.
    • Biological factors, including genetics, brain structure, and hormonal imbalances, may also play a role in shaping behavior and predisposing individuals to criminality.
    • Environmental factors, such as neighborhood characteristics, availability of resources, and access to firearms or illicit substances, can impact the prevalence of crime within communities.
  5. Investigating the Occurrence of Crime Through Research and Theory Development:
    • Research methods for investigating crime include quantitative approaches, such as surveys and statistical analysis, and qualitative methods, such as interviews, case studies, and observational studies.
    • Theory development involves constructing explanations and frameworks to understand the causes and correlates of crime, drawing on insights from various disciplines, including sociology, psychology, criminology, and criminal justice.
  6. Sources of Crime Data:
    • Official crime statistics collected by law enforcement agencies provide data on reported crimes, arrests, and clearance rates. Advantages include standardized data collection and broad coverage of criminal incidents. Disadvantages include underreporting, inconsistencies in reporting practices, and reliance on law enforcement discretion.
    • Victimization surveys, such as the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), gather data on individuals’ experiences with crime, including unreported incidents. Advantages include capturing a broader range of criminal activity and providing insights into victimization patterns. Disadvantages include sampling biases and recall errors.
    • Self-report surveys involve asking individuals about their involvement in criminal activities. Advantages include anonymity and the ability to capture sensitive or stigmatized behaviors. Disadvantages include social desirability bias and limitations in generalizability.
  7. Importance of Crime Research in Recidivism Reduction Strategies and Crime Prevention Policies:
    • Crime research informs evidence-based practices and policies aimed at reducing recidivism and preventing crime.
    • Understanding the root causes of criminal behavior and identifying effective interventions can help tailor rehabilitation programs, diversionary efforts, and community-based initiatives.
    • Crime research also guides the allocation of resources and prioritization of interventions to address the most pressing criminogenic factors and target high-risk populations.


Crime is a multifaceted phenomenon influenced by a complex interplay of individual, social, economic, and environmental factors. By examining crime through different theoretical perspectives and conducting rigorous research, policymakers and practitioners can develop more effective strategies to address crime, promote public safety, and foster a fair and just society.

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