Defining Terminologies

Below are 20 terms from your studies in this course. Eight of the terms are identified with an asterisk (*).

1) Define each of the twenty terms in your own words. Do not cut and paste reference material. This is more of an open-book test than an essay, so your responses may be brief, but need to be specific, accurate, and in your own words.

2) For the eight terms that have an asterisk (*), in addition to defining the term, also add if you support what the term represents (why or why not?)

Turn in your completed written document with all responses by the due date listed.

Each term you complete is worth up to 5 points, for a total possible 100 points. Your responses will be judged for accuracy and completeness as assessed by the instructor. This is not a difficult assignment, but your answers (in your own words) need to demonstrate your understanding of the curriculum you studied during this course.

The Twenty Terms:

  1. Criminology
  2. Assault
  3. Battery
  4. Deviance
  5. Burglary
  6. Community Policing (*)
  7. Conflict Theory (*)
  8. Felony
  9. Labeling Theory (*)
  10. Restorative Justice (*)
  11. Retribution (*)
  12. Social Control Theory (*)
  13. Social Learning theory (*)
  14. Sociopath
  15. Terrorism
  16. Transnational Crime
  17. Utilitarianism (*)
  18. Voir Dire
  19. White-Collar Crime
  20. Public Order Crimes

Answer:

  1. Criminology: Criminology is the study of crime, criminals, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system.
  2. Assault: Assault is the intentional act of causing fear of imminent bodily harm or offensive contact in another person.
  3. Battery: Battery is the intentional and unlawful touching or striking of another person without their consent.
  4. Deviance: Deviance refers to behavior that violates social norms, values, or expectations within a particular society or group.
  5. Burglary: Burglary is the unlawful entry into a building or structure with the intent to commit theft or another felony.
  6. Community Policing (*): Community policing is a law enforcement strategy that emphasizes building partnerships and collaborative relationships between police departments and the communities they serve to address crime and quality-of-life issues.
  7. Conflict Theory (*): Conflict theory is a sociological perspective that views society as characterized by inequality and conflict between different social groups, particularly between the wealthy and the poor.
  8. Felony: A felony is a serious crime that is typically punishable by imprisonment for more than one year or by death.
  9. Labeling Theory (*): Labeling theory is a sociological perspective that suggests individuals become deviant when labeled as such by authority figures or societal institutions, leading to self-fulfilling prophecies.
  10. Restorative Justice (*): Restorative justice is a criminal justice approach that focuses on repairing harm caused by criminal behavior through processes such as mediation, restitution, and community service, with an emphasis on healing and reconciliation.
  11. Retribution (*): Retribution is a theory of punishment that emphasizes the moral necessity of punishing offenders as a form of retribution for their wrongdoing, regardless of any rehabilitative or deterrent effects.
  12. Social Control Theory (*): Social control theory is a criminological perspective that suggests individuals are motivated to conform to societal norms and rules by the presence of social bonds, such as attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
  13. Social Learning Theory (*): Social learning theory is a psychological perspective that suggests individuals learn behavior through observation, imitation, and modeling of others, particularly in social contexts.
  14. Sociopath: A sociopath is a term often used interchangeably with antisocial personality disorder, characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others, lack of empathy, manipulative behavior, and often criminal tendencies.
  15. Terrorism: Terrorism is the use of violence, threats, or intimidation to achieve political, religious, or ideological goals, often targeting civilians or non-combatants.
  16. Transnational Crime: Transnational crime refers to criminal activities that occur across national borders and involve organized criminal groups engaging in activities such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering, and cybercrime.
  17. Utilitarianism (*): Utilitarianism is a moral and ethical theory that suggests the best action is the one that maximizes overall happiness or utility for the greatest number of people, often associated with the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number.
  18. Voir Dire: Voir dire is the process of questioning prospective jurors to determine their suitability and impartiality for jury service in a legal proceeding.
  19. White-Collar Crime: White-collar crime refers to non-violent, financially motivated crimes typically committed by individuals or organizations in positions of trust or authority, such as fraud, embezzlement, insider trading, and bribery.
  20. Public Order Crimes: Public order crimes are offenses that involve behaviors that interfere with the peace and order of society, such as disorderly conduct, loitering, public intoxication, and prostitution.

 

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