Effects of Turnover Intention and Burnout in Nursing Profession


This study attempts to examine the burnout effects on turnover intention in nursing profession, does supervisory support. Multiple group analysis with the adoption of the internet access technology was used to complete the analysis procedure for this study. The major findings of this study have shown that turnover intention and burnout have positive relationship with nursing profession. Nursing is among the most stressful jobs in the modern healthcare system. The emotional pressure, the insufficiency of health units, the qualification of personnel, relations with co-workers and supervisors, autonomy, relatively longer, and more active study hours, and their potential responsibilities are some of the causes of burnout in certain times and environments during the career of a nurse.

A number of factors influence and inform the ability and scope of nursing decision making. These include the legal and legislative boundaries set by national nursing organizations, expectations associated with professional bodies as well as societal, professional and institutional expectations. In some countries, it may be considered reasonable that nurses make autonomous, independent decisions, when based on evidence and backed up with clearly articulated rationale and logic; this may be linked to role specifications and advanced learning such as the Nurse Practitioner registration.

 Other countries may have more limited expectations of the nursing role and the opportunity to move outside existing medical hierarchy is more constrained.  Sometimes the limitations are imposed from within the nursing profession itself, and are linked to fears of legal implications associated with potential error; in other cases the fear is associated with the implications of failing to act to the extent possible – of needing to provide any possible care in limited circumstances and with limited resources resulting in nurses working beyond their capacity or scope.


In every profession two significant factors are turnover intention and burnout, Which makes a person less productive in his/her work. Turnover is defined as the aggregate of worker replacements in a given period in a given business or industry and can be explained in two ways; an organizational or individual phenomenon (Hinshaw & Atwood, 1984). Turnover can be either voluntary which is when an individual quits their job at their own request or it can be involuntary which is defined as the company initiating the turnover or dismissing the employee (Collini, Guidroz, & Perez, 2015; Hayes et al., 2006; Hinshaw & Atwood, 1984).Voluntary turnover occurs when an employee left his or her job on their own decision. Involuntary is occurs when organization remove employees.

For those two variables turnover intention and burnout makes a employee not satisfied with his/her profession. The private nursing g sectors have been experiencing major changes practices of the clinics. However, nursing has become more challenging in worldwide. The result on the analysis of the relationship between burnout and turnover intention pointed out a positive relationship between both variables it shows that higher level of burnout have more tendency to quit the job. Service oriented sectors are facing burnout as a issue without overtime salary employee are not satisfied In terms of a daily schedule registered nurses can often be found working 5-8 hour days, 4-10 hour days or 3-12 hour days per week. RN’s that work 8 or 10 hour days typically work about 40 hours or so per week, however nurses that work 12 hour days may end up working around 36 hours per week. In either case both the 36 hour and 40 hour work weeks are generally considered full-time work for registered nurses. In the nursing literature, there are numerous studies which accept nursing profession as one of the most stressful jobs. Studies have found that some factors influence the job stress of nurses (e.g. workload, social support, autonomy), and job stress results in a high burnout level (Oehler & Davidson, 1992), and in most cases burnout causes turnover intention (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998).It is important to investigate the factors related to burnout and turnover intention of nurses. This will not only contribute to finding solutions for job related problems of nurses but also aid in increase in the quality of patient care including well-being of patients, and organizations

Investigate the effects of turnover intention and burnout in nursing profession

Examine the effects of turnover intention and burnout in nursing profession

Literature Review

The nursing shortage is a critical issue in many countries. High turnover rates among nurses is contributing to the shortage, and job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout have been identified as some of the predictors of nurse turnover.

The past literature reviews and meta-analytic studies have been conducted to review factors associated with nurse turnover Intention. According to Simoens et al. (2005), current nurse shortages seem to be caused, among other factors, by fewer young people entering the workforce, the low social value given to nursing, and negative perceptions of nurse working conditions. Nurse turnover has been categorized as either external or internal. According to the International Council of Nurses (2010 cited in Hayes et al. 2012, p. 888), external turnover refers to ‘a numerical value attached to the number of people who leave an organization for various reasons as opposed to internal, which involves job changes within an organization’. While working in a hospital, nurses face a broad range of physical and psychosocial demands, which may be summarized as a heavy workload and mental/emotional demands. As for job resources, a lack of supervisor support was confirmed to significantly relate to burnout among nursing staff in Australia (Spooner-Lane and Patton, 2007). In Fletcher (2001), a survey of 1,780 registered nurses identified supervisor support and quality of supervision as the lowest performing indicators with regard to their nurse managers. Other research also indicates that the relationships between nurses and their supervisors are particularly critical when examining stress and burnout among healthcare staff (Giannakou, 2015).

The paper which have been done on supervisory support, burnout and intention to leave variables among nurses employees in worldwide are presented below their separated headings

Turnover Intention in Nursing Sector

The Concept turnover to quit the organization is described as the destructive and active practices of the workers that are unsatisfied with working conditions.

Nursing is among the most stressful jobs in the modern healthcare system. The emotional pressure, the insufficiency of health units, the qualification of personnel, relations with co-workers and supervisors, autonomy, relatively longer, and more active working hours, and their potential responsibilities are some of the causes of burnout in certain times and environments during the career of a nurse. The definitions of turnover and accuracy of the reason for turnover are often inconsistent, making it difficult to compare or generalize across studies (Tai et al., 1998 provide a summary table of turnover definitions and measures). Jones (1990a, b) defined nursing turnover as the process whereby nursing staff leave or transfer within the hospital environment.

Burnout and Turnover Intention

Burnout is a psychological experience that manifests itselfin individuals, particularly those involved in difficult person to-person relationships as part of their work, such as nursing professionals (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). Many factors have been associated with burnout in mental health nursing. These factors include: job satisfaction, availability of social support, various aspects of patient care (such as the size of one’s caseload, type of patients, and violence at theworksite), various aspects of the work environment (such as staffing, shift work, income and wages, and extra duties), and the level of stress. Nurses’ burnout results in psychological and physical strain, fatigue, headache, sleep disorders, low quality of patient care, job turnover, and absenteeism. Other factors that increase burnout levels are low nurses’ educational level, working night shifts (Demir, Ulusoy, & Ulusoy, 2003), high levels of stress, poor coping styles (Burnard, Edwards, Fothergill, Hannigan, & Coyle, 2000; Edwards, 2000; Jaracz, Gorna, & Konieczna, 2005), poor work environment, nurse inexperience (Kanai-Pak, Aiken, Sloane, & Poghosyan, 2008), job dissatisfaction, and occupational stress (Happell, Pinikahana, & Martin, 2003).

Burnout has a negative effect on turnover intention

Supervisory Support and Turnover Intention

Social support involves empathy, care, love, and trust (emotional support); actual aid of time, money, and energy (instrumental support); information relevant to self-evaluation (appraisal support); and advice, information, and suggestions (informational support) (House, 1981). Social support affects health by regulating thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to foster an individual’s sense of meaning in life and facilitate healthy behaviors. Social support also has been found to improve well-being, decrease levels of stress and burnout that are associated with the work environment, and enhance job satisfaction (Sundin, Hochwalder, Bildt, & Lisspers, 2007). Many sources of social support have been identified for health care workers, including nurses. Sources of social support stemmed from the work (i.e., supervisors, colleagues, and coworkers) and from the home (i.e., family members, spouse, and friends)


Research design and study population

This study was a non-experimental, descriptive design, using a convenience sample nursing profession. The sample was recruited from the major public and private oncology/haematology treatment centre’s and included RNs working in outpatient, ambulatory care and inpatient facilities.

Study instrument

The instrument was a self-administered questionnaire that comprised fixed choice questions assessing 3 main concepts:, burnout and intent to leave and Supervisory support. Two scales used in the study instrument are described below

Burnout Scale

The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), developed by Maslach and Jackson (Maslach et al 1996), is a 22-item questionnaire. Cronbach alpha internal consistency was high for all subscales: 0.90 for the emotional exhaustion subscale, 0.79 for the depersonalisation subscale, and 0.71 for the personal accomplishment subscale (Maslach et al 1996). Test-retest reliability of the MBI was adequate, ranging from 0.60 to 0.82 after a two week interval. Other longitudinal studies have found a high degree of consistency that does not diminish markedly from a period of three to eight months (Lee & Ashforth 1993; Leiter & Durup 1996). Cronbach alpha scores for the subscales in the present study ranged from 0.68 – 0.90.

Intent to Leave Scale

Intent to leave was assessed using a 5-item scale modified from items developed by other researchers. Items were used from studies by Price and Mueller (1981) and Cammann et al (1983), with wording changed to reflect the respondents’ opinions about their likelihood of leaving the specialty of oncology/haematology. All items used a 5-point Likert scale. Cronbach alpha for this scale in the present study was 0.88.

Contribution of Study

The certain aim of this study is to investigate no matter if or not a number of career anxiety factors (i. demand, decision authority, assistance through co-workers and supervisors) possess results on listed nurses’ burnout and yield goal, and examine the particular romantic relationship between nurses’ burnout and even proceeds intention levels. This certain study increases our being familiar with about stressors (i. at the., demands, decision authority, assist from company workers inside addition to supervisors), their own effects in burnout degree, and proceeds intention, that will aid to comprehend just what policies ought to end up being requested effective as well as effective management in health-related industry.

Nursing is between your almost all stressful works in the modern healthcare technique. The Psychological pressure, typically the deficiency of health products, the particular qualification of staff, Relationships with co-workers and perhaps supervisors, autonomy, relatively additional, and more active examine hours, and their possible responsibilities are some concerning the reasons behind burnout? Previous, most times plus even environments in the career of a nurse.

Usually the research questions comprehends:

  • About what extent carry out market factors explain nurses “stress level and turnover intention?
  • To exactly precisely what extent do demands, choice authority, and social help explain Nurses’ burnout and turnover intention?
  • Guidelines Is there a link between nurses’ burnout level and the turnover Objective?

To obtain answers for these types of inquiries decision authority, requires, plus cultural

Support forms had been employed in order to look at the portion of burnout on nurses’

Turnover intention inside the certain profession


There has been so many research studies conducted on the measurement of burnout and turnover intention for various occupations including Nursing profession. Nursing practice cover broad continuum from health promotion, to disease prevention, to coordination of care, to cure when possible and to palliative care when cure is not possible.


Nurse should practice to the full extent of their education and training. Nurse should achieve higher levels of education and training through an improved education system that promotes seamless academic progression. Effective workforce planning and policy making require better data collection and improved information infrastructure. The recommendation offered in this report focus on critical intersection between the health needs of diverse population across the lifespan and the action of the nursing workforce.

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