Emerging Epidemic of Cardiovascular Risk

Discuss about the Emerging Epidemic of Cardiovascular Risk.

The following annotated bibliography compiles peer-reviewed sources that tackle the topic of obesity among patients in the developed world and how the factor contributes to an increase in the risk of contracting heart disease.

Xiao-Xu Xiea et al., (2016) examine the role of Ischemic heart disease in determining the state of health of world cities. The study examines the number of deaths that accrue from the disease, the number of people disabled by the disease and the number of risk factors associated with the illness in Fujian province of Japan. The study is modeled on the principles of qualitative and quantitative research. The study is conducted between 1990 and 2013 and uses data from Global Burden and Disease study. It is compiled in the international journal of cardiology. China is one of the developed and advanced countries in the world. A review of heart disease in the country will not only be essential in determining the authenticity of the research but will also help to act as a control for a developed country without obese people. The study finds that many obese people in developed nations face the risk of acquiring heart diseases. It affirms the need for more studies to be conducted in the area for clarity of thought. The growth of population and aging lead to a burden on the economy of a nation.

Teo, K. & Dokainish, H., (2017) compile a study titled, “The Emerging Epidemic of Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Atherosclerotic Disease in Developing Countries” The study seeks to examine emerging trends in risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the developing countries. Although the study is interested in the dual survey of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Atherosclerotic Disease in Developing Countries, it will be intent on examining the cardiovascular aspect of the disease. The study is based on a population perspective for urban and rural epidemiology. It finds that developed countries are at a higher risk of contracting the disease compared to low-income countries. The same case finds that due to the advantage of technology and innovation the developed nations have low death rates associated with heart disease compared to the low income countries. The study adopts a qualitative and quantitative approach to data assembly and analysis.

Suzette et al. (2015) develop research titled, “Gynecardiology: Distinct Patterns of Ischemic Heart Disease in Middle-aged Women.” The study posits that the life conditions for women in the developed nations make it easier for them to acquire such infections. That said and done: it will be of high presence to assume that the boy child is being favored or appreciated. For instance, in the US right now, women get many job opportunities, treated better and fairly by the judicial and police system. The boy child instead is a complete alien who came from planet Jupiter and no longer treated as a human being living on this planet. I represent a breed, a human kind of a race that significantly began becoming extent. More girls are born daily than boys are; other men to are celibate, some asexual, others do not want to settle for marriage whereas we have those of different sexuality. Marriage has become a no-go zone for men, as they seem to have a different reason that I shall not shelter from mentioning. Some men consider marriage to be not an easy thing. They feel intimidated and not inspired; they feel as though they are forced by their communities or societies to settle down when they are not ready for it whatsoever. Another section of men bows to the pressure from their kind by marrying when they choose to forget it is a lifetime commitment and devotion, one that has so many jubilations and tribulations, life is a balance of chaos.

Mehta et al. (2015) examine the prevalence of heart disease in women in their study titled, “Ischemic Heart Disease in Women” The research focusses on the risk factors of the diseases and seeks to advance research on the trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. The study notes that heart disease remains a significant factor contributing to the death of women in the US and around the world. The study reviews are emerging and known risk factors for heart disease in women. Some of the traditional risk factors include diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Sedentary lifestyles and smoking are all factors that can be changed by the patient. The study posits the need for providers of healthcare to remain aware of emerging risk factors among women. Some of that affect women and that require immediate attention include systemic autoimmune disorders, radiation-induced heart disease, obstructive sleep apnea and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Lauren A. Baldassarre et al., (2016) examine the technology of noninvasive imaging for the evaluation of women’s bodies that have stable Ischemic heart disease. The study finds that women in the developed countries are more likely to develop the heart disease compared to those in the developing nations. America had come from a time in her history when marriage was a rite of passage of which every man and woman dreamt. Beginning 1976, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the US reported a drop in the number of marriages in the US. Since then, the numbers of single people in the United States far outnumber the number of married people and stands at 50% of the population. Despite the rise in online dating sites and communication technologies, the rate of marriage unions continues to dwindle. People have more global access to one another today than they did a decade ago. Several theories have been developed to explain the turn in societal norms some including the change in societal standards and the lack of desire in men for marriage. Shaped by societal norms, beliefs, and customs, modern men are scared of the thought of marriage, which is a factor that fuels the fire of singlehood in the United States.


Lauren A. Baldassarre et al., 2016. Noninvasive Imaging to Evaluate Women With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 9(4), pp.421-35.

Mehta, P., Wei, J. & Wenger, N., 2015. Ischemic heart disease in women: A focus on risk factors. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, 25(1), pp.140-51.

Suzette E. Elias-Smale, Arzu Günal & Maas, A.H.E.M., 2015. Gynecardiology: Distinct patterns of ischemic heart disease in middle-aged women. Maturitas, 81(3), pp.348-52.

Teo, K. & Dokainish, H., 2017. The Emerging Epidemic of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Atherosclerotic Disease in Developing Countries. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, November. pp.358-65.

Xiao-Xu Xiea et al., 2016. Ischemic heart disease deaths, disability-adjusted life years and risk factors in Fujian, China during 1990–2013: Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. International Journal of Cardiology, 214(1), pp.265-69.

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