Imperialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century

Throughout the late nineteenth and mid twentieth centuries the political and geographical boundries of nations were undergoing rapid changes promoted by capitalism and supported by powerful forces of ideology. However, at the turn of the century we begin to see political uprising, communism and breaking of great empires. This distribution of complex empires was cut in the late 18th and early nineteenth centuries by the English Revolutionary struggle and the Latin American wars of freedom. Nevertheless, some new settlements were established after the period, including the German colonial empire and Belgian colonial empire.

In the late nineteenth century, some European forces were involved in this Scramble for continent. For example, the French colonial empire stretched around 12,347,000 km2 in its peak in the 1920s and 1930s. Multiple historic sources tell us about the transition and evolution of Colonial powers and their colonies from the late nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century.

Who, it was the point of complex expansion by European forces, the United States, and the monarchy of Japan during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

This point is recognized by the unprecedented pursuit of foreign regional acquisitions. At this moment, states concentrated on building their empires with recent technological advancements and developments, making their region bigger through conquering, and exploiting their resources.

France had complex possessions, at different forms, since the start of the seventeenth century, but in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its international foreign complex empire expanded greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British empire.

Including metropolitan France, the overall region of the earth under French sovereignty nearly reached 13 million square kilometers in the 1920s and decades, 6 percent of the earth’s land. Called the Belle Époque, the turn of the century was a period characterized by hope, regional harmony, economic prosperity and technical, technological and social innovations. In 1905, government philosophy was formally established.

The twentieth century was a period that started on new year’s day, 1901 (the New York moment. New year’s day, 1901) And finished on Dec 31, 2000. (United States Naval Observatory.) It was the 10th and last the period of the second millennium. It is different from this period called the 1900s which started on new year’s day, 1900 and ended on December 31, 1999. From the past 15th to the mid-20th centuries, Spain ruled at different territories in Europe, Africa, Oceania, America, and the Filipino land. Between the 15th and the first nineteenth centuries, these settlements were considered as part of the Spanish monarchy. It was this early empire to take called “the monarchy on which this light never defines,” because it was indeed geographically large that at least one thing of the empire was in daylight at any given time.

After the dark ages this country was generally under the power of the Ottoman Empire, except Morocco. The Spanish Empire seized some maritime cities between the 16th and eighteenth centuries. After the nineteenth century, the royal and complex presence of France, Great Britain, Spain and Italy led the entirety of this area under one kind of European occupation.

Most of this publication dates from the nineteenth century through the mid-20th century, when enormous political, economical, and spiritual change affected art and society in some societies through exploitation, imperialism, war, and globalism. The huge example in the area of the room includes stools, the kind of seating common in some culture groups; they are expertly crafted to be useful but also communicative in form and decoration. Chairs were presented by Europeans and so adapted and decorated in local fashions e.g., the highly decorated imperial office from Ghana.

With increasing industrialization came improvements to production capacity which affected all basic human needs including food production and medicine. Resulting in London’s population rising quickly throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Making it for some period at the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that most populous city in the world. Its population peaked in 8,615,245 in 1939 directly before the occurrence of the world war ii but had refused to 7,192,091 in this 2001 Census. Still, the population then rose by only around one million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to get 8,173,941 at the latter enumeration.

In the early nineteenth century, most of these countries of South America fought their wars of freedom, liberating themselves from the colonial power of Spain. So, how will the example take on imperialism in the nineteenth and twentieth century? Although the word ‘imperialism ‘ frequently refers to the primary power of the colony by the empire, there are different forms of ideology, too. Imagine the bully in school. The child does not operate anybody immediately, but through his power and force is even able to control people’s activities and gain from their property, or in the case, their lunch money. This’s kind of what these different kinds of imperialism are like. Latin American countries emerged from their freedom wars free, but very vulnerable and miserable after decades of struggle. Different, stronger forces were therefore able to spend heavily in Latin American economies, giving them lots of influence at these current governments. One of the earliest works that brought the suffering in colonized countries is Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness that brings to light the plight of the native inhabitants which had been forced into British Companies’ services and there they are subject to unsafe conditions and ill treatment. Usage of light and shadow at Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness contrasts light and dark, to describe the humane and savage faces of this world. However, Conrad flips the usual imperialist propaganda when he describes the squalor of the enterprise with contrast to the majestic jungle that surrounds it on all sides. Conrad, uses light to describe the humane side of mankind while contrasting the darkness with the savage and beast. Throughout the thematic phases of this book, this is the river London, the corporation’s business at Belgium, this travel to the “eye of dark” and the conclusion, light and dark is used to represent these sides of humanity, but on the deeper level some assumptions of dark and light are disputed, with the show of bright and blue, and in exchange good and evil contras. The relationship between capitalism and imperialism is a complex one with imperialism often protecting the interest of capitalism the discovery of new sources of raw material lead to the expansion of trade and the emergence of modern capitalism.

Césaire’s discussion on colonialism contends that exploitation was not or ever been a public-spirited movement whose purpose was to change the lives of those colonized, rather, settlers’ motivations were entirely self-center for example, economic exploitation. According to Césaire, by establishing these colonies and then exploiting them, these European colonial forces have created two important questions, The issue of the labor and the complex issue. In identifying the complex issue that European society has made, he calls Europe “indefensible’, whose colonizers may not be misconstrued as optimistic. Cesaire talks about the relation between culture and barbarism and points out the hypocrisy of exploitation. He insists that it is ironic that colonizers desired to rid these nations they colonized of “barbarians” but actually, by defeating, plundering, and ruining the earth in which those “savages” lived on, they in themselves were savages.

The fundamental ideology behind imperialism, which in turn informs exploitation, is the idea of racial superiority or ethnic domination. Again, much like the ideals behind the exploitation of the U.S., some European colonizers believed that they were making the favour to those surviving on this African continent by presenting to them the European way of life, Even if it fell in the price of ruining established societies. Throughout this colonial period, those societies that had been instituted in Africa struggled heavily to fight off their European colonizers. Yet, because of the fact that European forces were disproportionately helped by these productions of this industrial revolution, some former empires and lands that had been here at Africa were at a disadvantage and lost to the colonizers. Throughout the period, Africa was always changed.

Ideology, the Highest phase of capitalism, depicts the relationship between capitalism and ideology, wherein the merging of banks and industrial cartels creates business assets. The last, imperialist phase of capitalism, originates in the business function of generating higher profits than the home market will produce; Therefore, business exports assets, which, in due course, leads to the economic part of the globe among global business monopolies, and imperial European states colonizing huge parts of the globe to make investment gains. Ideology, Therefore, is an advanced phase of capitalism based upon market and the commodity of assets not commodities, and of which colonialism is one but one characteristic.

It is just the parasitism and disintegration of capitalism, typical of its highest historic stage of growth, i.e., ideology Capitalism has today singled out the handful (not as much as one-tenth of the inhabitants of this world; not as much as one-fifth in the most generous and progressive computation) of exceptionally wealthy and powerful states which plunder the whole world simply by clipping coupons assets exports generate the income of eight to 10 billion francs per year, In pre-war costs and over the gains which capitalists squeeze out of the workers of their own nation it is likely to pay that labour individuals and the top stratum of the labour aristocracy. This is exactly what the capitalists of the advanced nations are doing, they are corrupting them in one thousand other ways, direct and indirect, explicit and secret.

Vladimir Lenin modified classical communism concept and reasoned that capitalism inevitably caused market capitalism-which he also named imperialism -in order to find new markets and resources, Presenting the final and highest phase of capitalism. Some twentieth century Marxian economists believe capitalism to be a cultural activity where capitalist class processes prevail, but are not only. Capitalistic class operations, to these thinkers, are just those in which excess work takes the form of surplus amount, useful as assets; different tendencies for employment of labour nonetheless exist simultaneously in existing societies where capitalist processes are predominant. Nevertheless, other recent Marxian thinkers contend that the cultural organization in general may be classified as capitalist if capitalism is the manner by which the surplus is extracted, even if this surplus is not produced by capitalist activity, as when the infinite majority of the population is employed in non-capitalist economic action.

In conclusion, we see rapid changes the late nineteenth and mid twentieth centuries. The political and geographical boundaries of nations were undergoing sudden changes promoted by capitalism and supported by powerful forces of ideology. The resources above and their authors are giving the readers a look into the conditions, or ways of thinking people in the past had and allows us to see the world that we previously lived in to the world we are currently in as the saying goes “history often repeats its self”. The authors of these texts I can only assume wrote this information down to keep documented evidence and for lost stories to be told.

References

  1. Sir Henry M. Stanley. How I Found Livingstone. Project Gutenberg eBook, 1872 [2006]. Pp. 138-145.
  2. Joseph Conrad. Heart of Darkness. Project Gutenberg eBook, 1899 [2006]. Pp. 33- 48
  3. Vladimir Lenin. “Imperialism as a Special Stage of Capitalism” and “Critique of Imperialism” from Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism in Selected Works, Progress Publishers, 1963, Moscow, Volume 1, pp. 667-766. (https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/) (accessed January 8, 2016)
  4. Aimée Césaire, Discourse on Colonialism, trans. Joan Pinkham. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1955 [2000].
  5. López, F. B. (2011). Towards a definition of Islamophobia: approximations of the early twentieth century. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(4), 556–573.
  6. downes, stephanie. (2015). Chaucer in Nineteenth-Century France. The Chaucer Review, 49(3), 352–370.
  7. Dunlevy, J. A., & Hutchinson, W. K. (1999). The Impact of Immigration on American Import Trade in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. The Journal of Economic History, 59(4), 1043–1062.
  8. Petruso, Karl M (1981). ”Early Weights and Weighing in Egypt and the Indus Valley’, M Bulletin’. Boston Museum of Fine Arts. pp. 44–51. JSTOR 4171634. (Subscription required (help)).  Missing or empty |url= (help)
  9. ‘The History of Weighing’. Averyweigh-tronix.com. 2012-03-02. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
  10. ‘Load Cells’. Omega.com. Retrieved 2014-02-26.
  11. Niazi, Asfandyar Khan; Kalra, Sanjay; Irfan, Awais; Islam, Aliya (2016-11-13). ‘Thyroidology over the ages’. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 15 (Suppl2): S121–S126. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.83347. ISSN 2230-8210. PMC 3169859 [image: reely accessible]. PMID 21966648.
  12. ‘Thyroid History Timeline – American Thyroid Association’. www.thyroid.org. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  13. Heffernan, M. (2002). The Politics of the Map in the Early Twentieth Century. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 29(3), 207–226.
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