Infectious Communicable Diseases Essay

<> Infectious/communicable diseases essay

Please choose one infectious disease or communicable disease and present a 1,000 words essay including the follow;

Name of the disease including agents that cause Infectious/Communicable Disease, the mode of contamination or how it is spread.

The modes of prevention applying the three levels of prevention with at least one example of each one.

Prevalence and control of the condition according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) including morbidity and mortality.

Implications of the disease in the community and the role of the community health nurse in the control and prevention of the disease.

The essay must be presented in a Word Document, APA format, Arial 12 font. A minimum of 3 references no older than 5 years must be used.  If you use any reference from any website make sure they are reliable sites such as CDC, NIH, Institute of Medicine, etc.

  • Below please see the definitions of infectious disease and communicable disease.  They are similar but differ in some characteristics.
  • Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They’re normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person.
  • Communicable, or infectious diseases, are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi that can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Some are transmitted through bites from insects while others are caused by ingesting contaminated food or water.

Answer:

Tuberculosis: A Communicable Disease

Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). It primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the kidney, spine, and brain. TB is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, releasing droplets containing the bacteria into the air, which another person can inhale (CDC, 2022).

Modes of Prevention

There are three levels of prevention for TB: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary prevention focuses on reducing the risk of exposure to TB, and it includes strategies such as vaccination, adequate ventilation in living and working spaces, and using respiratory protection equipment. The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a primary prevention measure that has been used to reduce the risk of TB transmission in some countries, although its effectiveness varies (WHO, 2021).

Secondary prevention focuses on detecting and treating TB in its early stages to prevent its progression and spread. Screening programs to identify individuals at risk of TB and offering treatment to those with latent TB infection are important secondary prevention measures. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that individuals at high risk of TB, such as those with HIV, receive annual TB screening (CDC, 2022).

Tertiary prevention focuses on preventing complications and managing the disease in those already affected. It includes measures such as providing appropriate treatment regimens to reduce the risk of drug-resistant TB, monitoring and managing side effects of medications, and promoting adherence to treatment.

Prevalence and Control

According to the CDC (2022), in 2020, there were approximately 8.4 million cases of TB worldwide, and 1.4 million deaths from the disease. In the United States, there were 7,163 reported cases of TB in 2020, with a rate of 2.2 cases per 100,000 people. Although TB is more common in certain populations, such as foreign-born individuals and those living in poverty, it can affect anyone (CDC, 2022).

The control of TB involves a combination of strategies, including case detection, treatment, and prevention. In the United States, TB control programs aim to identify and treat cases of TB promptly, to interrupt transmission and prevent further spread of the disease. The CDC recommends a comprehensive approach to TB control, including efforts to reduce the risk of transmission, early detection and treatment of TB cases, and preventive treatment for those with latent TB infection (CDC, 2022).

Implications and Role of the Community Health Nurse

TB can have significant implications for individuals and communities. TB can cause serious illness, disability, and death, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. In addition, TB can have economic and social impacts, such as loss of income and social stigma. The role of the community health nurse in TB control and prevention involves several key activities. These include conducting community outreach and education to raise awareness about TB, identifying and referring individuals at risk of TB for testing and treatment, promoting adherence to treatment, and collaborating with other healthcare providers and community organizations to coordinate care and services (CDC, 2022).

Conclusion

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease that poses a significant public health threat worldwide. Although TB rates have declined in many countries, it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in vulnerable populations. Prevention and control of TB require a comprehensive approach that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention measures. The role of the community health nurse is critical in TB control and prevention, involving activities such as community outreach, identification of individuals at risk, and promoting adherence to treatment.

 

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