Leadership: organization

What are the main strategies applied by the leaders of the organization to enhance the employee performance?

What types of leadership style should be followed to improve the employee performance?

Introduction 

In this contemporary market, leadership has become a vital aspect for managing organizational requirements and employees performance at large. Employees are considered to be the key factor for the development of an organization for which the management is focusing more on encouraging employees’ performance by providing better facilities and working environment within the organization . The research work has been designed to determine the impact of correct leadership style, which can actively influence the employees to perform more effectively . There are three major leadership styles such as autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire that are usually followed by the leaders that directly or indirectly impacts on the employee performance . It has been apparent that transformational leadership style such as democratic leadership is the most preferable style within current organization domain. The employees get motivated through this style as they are involved in the process of strategy implementation . This research proposal includes the significance of effective leadership of an organization, which influences the employee performance through different aspects and methods. Therefore, the research proposal intends to conduct an in-depth analysis based on the data collected from different sources and determine the effect of leadership styles on enhancing employees’ performance within an organizational setting .

Background of the Research

Since past two decades, leadership development has been successful in attaining huge achievement in managing employees along with their different requirements and successfully encouraged them towards a common objective. Now-a-days, several studies have represented the requirement of effective skills and techniques for leadership development that is considered to be the most vital factor in improving overall performance of an organization. According to the report presented by Forum Europaeum on Company Groups , dissimilarity of leadership styles influences and encourages the performance of employees through motivation. Apart from this, the motivational theories also provide help to implement an appropriate strategy to improve the employee performance. Conversely, performance can be referred as the execution of responsibilities, completing task within deadlines, team-work and achieving organization goal that lead towards efficient, specialized and successful organization along with maintaining positive relation with the employees. Thus, it has been apparent that by adopting appropriate leadership style or method, leaders can influence employees to perform hard work, which eventually stimulate organization growth .    

Scope of the Research

This research proposal defines the contribution of proper leadership style, which increases the employee performance. According to several research studies those have been conducted previously, there are various types of leadership styles are followed by many leaders of the organizations. In other sense, some leadership styles and theories will be discussed in this research proposal. On the other hand, there are different types motivational theories will also be evaluated in this research proposal. Moreover, each and every factors and element which are related to leadership styles and employee performance will be covered up in this research project proposal .

Objectives of Research Proposal

The following research objectives have been formulated in order to conduct the overall research in the most effective manner:

To examine the impact of leadership style on the employee performance

To identify the relationship between an effective leader and a motivated employee

To execute how leaders improve the employee performance?

The above-mentioned research objectives will be resolved through quantitative and qualitative research methods, proper data analysis with SPSS, ANOVA Test, and true findings.

Questions of Research proposal

This research proposal includes some effective research questions, which will be resolved by the researcher. The research questions are discussed below:

What are the main strategies applied by the leaders of the organization to enhance the employee performance?

Why should employee follow the motivational theories of their leaders?

What types of leadership style should be followed to improve the employee performance?

A review of Literature

The leadership style is playing a remarkable part in every last organization. Various types of leadership styles were conversed about in numerous studies and records . On the other hand, the leadership and administration are extremely puzzled components in the event that they are depicted in the same way. John Kotter referred that these two diverse substances are the crucial piece of management. In addition, he also said that a solitary word management incorporates the different sorts of leadership styles. An appropriate leader incorporates some key trademark components which make him an effective leader, for example, certainty, motivation, dynamic correspondence framework, empowering others; basic leadership force and objective setting characters. In other sense, the leadership really characterizes the conduct of different partners of an organization and impacts them to go to the organizational objectives . Apart from that, while discussing the Multi-National organizations, the distinctive leadership styles improve some leadership approaches which are utilized by the managers as they need to lead their subordinate employees with a specific end goal to meet required targets of the organization In this research proposal various types of leadership styles and practices will be elaborated. In addition, how these leadership style influence the employee performance will also discuss below; 

There are different sorts of leadership styles and the essentialness of those styles which impact the execution of the employees are examined beneath for better understanding: 

Autocratic leadership: as indicated by Somech, this leadership style the manager holds much power and basic leadership power as would be possible. Additionally, this leadership style likewise ways to deal with managers to counsel with their staffs and all employees will undoubtedly comply with the requests of their supervisors with no sort of clarification. Also, Tannenbaum and Schmidt stated that in the autocratic leadership style managers don’t have full confidence in their employees, and they need to facilitate with another department of the organization. Then again, this style can’t be utilized where the staffs are trained and frightful, or they are relying upon the troughs to decide .

Bureaucratic leadership: this leadership style is directed with participative leadership style. According to Stogdil, in this leadership style, the managers of an organization incorporate their subordinates keeping in mind the end goal to settle on choices in the support of the organization. In other words, these managers keep a final decision-making power in their particular hand. Correspondingly, this will impact the employees to work adequately keeping in mind the end goal to get beneficial outcomes on the matter of the organization. In addition, this style offers consent to construct destinations, the impact to develop advancements and occupations, urges to accomplishment among the employees of the organization .  

Laissez-faire: this leadership style is otherwise called the ‘hands-off’ style where the managers pay a practically zero direction and give most extreme flexibility to their employees. According to Yukl, this leadership style creates an impact on directors to give full power to representative keeping in mind the end goal to set objectives and determination issues with the proper choice. This leadership style is extremely successful where the employees are all around experienced, educated and skilled. In addition, this leadership style should not be utilized when the manager of the organization inattentive . 

Coaching leaders: this leadership style incorporates some characters of leaders, for example, the managers concentrate on worker execution, however, building up their abilities and skills. On the other hand, Csoka, L. S. also stated that the leaders who follow the coaching leadership style always encourage their employees to improve skills and knowledge. Moreover, these types of leaders teach their employees about mistakes and faults .

Research Methodology

The proposed study aims at determining the effectiveness of different leadership styles that are being adopted by organizations in encouraging employees to improve their performance. The study will further concentrate on the organizations to develop an appropriate leadership style or method by considering the employees in current organizational setting. In this regard, the research questions and the methodology is focused on provide guidance to the research and derive a transparent outcome based on the contemporary organizational setting . The research methodology is the most important part of a research proposal including different tools and approaches, which are discussed below: 

Research Approach

Design patterns of a research is considered to be the most essential factor in communicating the knowledge with research process and developing required changes based on the research outcome. There are two types of research approaches are identified about in numerous studies, for example, inductive and deductive approach. The inductive approaches characterize the start and accumulation of primary data, which use a significant measure of the research proposal by the researcher. On the other hand, the deductive research approach incorporates the estimation of the secondary data gathering and finishes up the underlying period of the research proposal by dissecting the significant assessments of different specialists . One of the major differences between these two approaches is centered on the process of evaluating the nature of reality. The inductive research approach is concentrated on multiple constructed theories or reality and generates different interpretations for individual prospect, whereas the deductive research approach is concerned with the single and common reality that is measured by using scientific principles . Apart from this, the inductive research approach depends on the qualitative approach, and the deductive approach depends on the quantitative technique. In addition, the researcher will proceed with the research with the deductive approach keeping in mind the end goal to give an appropriate structure to the research and pick up a viable conclusion .

Research Type

In this research proposal, there are two types of systems for a gathering of data talked about in numerous studies, one is quantitative and the other is qualitative research. In addition, capable speculations are balanced by the researcher, and its outcomes are to be reflected in the quantitative data. The research proposal will follow a mixed research approach to provide more coherent understanding of effective leadership styles on improving the performance of employees as well as organizations. A mixed approach refers to conducting research based on the quantitative data such as interviews and qualitative data such as reviewing literature sources or other authenticated resources . 

The objective of this research will be to evaluate the significance of leadership styles and motivational theories in the organisational setting as well as the perception of employees towards this practice. Thus, applying this particular approach will be more appropriate for gathering information regarding the employees’ performance and other related requirements. Apart from this, the proposed study will concentrate on enhancing knowledge about the leadership styles and further development that have occurred over a particular time period. Therefore, reviewing literature or other authenticated sources will help to enhance the understanding on the research topic . 

Doyle, Brady & Bryne  has affirmed that conducting research based on quantitative approach may fail to provide an expected outcome, since it purely concentrates on examining the current scenario through the feedback of the participants. Thus, there are certain drawbacks of implementing either qualitative or quantitative approach, for which applying mixed method is considered to be the most appropriate in conducting a research successfully . In this regard, Creswell  has reported that the mixed method approach considers certain priorities such as development, initiation, expansion and complementary, through which the quantitative data can be examined based on qualitative knowledge.      

Research Sample

As indicated by Wheeler and Holloway, the sample size which does not affect the need or nature of the study material. Then again, the testing outline shows a strategy of selecting a particular social event of individual, events and may be led which requires coordinating the study matter. Similarly, purposive examining was grabbed by the researcher in this research proposal .

The research will include simple Random Sampling method as the process of selecting participants for interviews. One of the most important advantages of this sampling method is the ease of collecting samples for the research and the probability of considering the feedback of all the respondents are equal. Furthermore, the particular sampling method is also highly unbiased that will lead to obtaining an appropriate conclusion. The participants for the research will be selected from several business organizations including employees, leaders and managers who have experience in managing team or working in teams. In this regard, questionnaire survey will be conducted to communicate with these participants in order to ascertain their feedback regarding different leadership styles and its impact on employee performance. The participant observation method will also be included in the research to examine the employees’ attitude with respect to supporting different leadership styles or motivational theories . 

The purpose of the questionnaire survey in this research is to suffice the research objectives and answer the research questions to obtain a valid outcome.  Conducting this survey will help to provide a coherent outcome on the subject matter within shorter time span by communicating with the participants. Concentrating on the current market, organisations are shifting their requirements and preferences frequently, which can be determined through this survey. Since the research concentrates on the modern business scenario, interviewing the experienced employees or leaders will provide a transparent view on the importance of effective leadership style on employee performance and at the same time ascertain the issues that might be faced by employees from a particular leadership style .      

Data Collection Method

This research proposal will conclude both sources of data collection techniques to meet the focuses, objectives, and research questions. Then again, the need of the researcher will reliably be to amass primary data from the picked social occasions of tests by passing on diagram questionnaire. Data accumulation is essentially of two sort’s particularly primary data and secondary data. Data are assembled with the help of questionnaire in any research project . 

Similarly, the primary data is considered as the direct resources, which have never been conveyed and the secondary data are such data which has been assembled already from the sources like web, books, articles and distributed articulation and government archives. Additionally, the questionnaires are set up according to the gatherings be that the standard thought the procedure of the researcher is to focus on the impact of effective leadership on employee performance. Questionnaire survey will be conducted for communicating with the participants and focus on obtaining their practical feedback regarding the leadership styles or theories . 

Data Analysis

The data gathered from both primary and secondary sources will be interpreted and analyzed with the help of graphs, charts, repeat tables, and pie diagrams.   Data examination is done not long after the amassing of legitimate data. SPSS will also be used as it enables interpreting the collected data in a practical manner and deriving expected outcome of the research. Besides, data will be analysed in terms of different factors such as employees’ experience, frequency of changing leadership styles within the organisation and the diversity of strategies performed by the leaders. Other software such as Microsoft Power Point will also be used for conducting the study in an effective manner. 

The quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive statistics along with the graphical representation of figures to understand the success of leadership styles and motivational theories in encouraging employees to achieve organisation goal. The data analysis will also be conducted through several other statistical tools such as correlation analysis with matrix and ANOVA test, which will help in defining the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables. Regression analysis will also be conducted to determine the most significant variables including employees’ attitude towards leadership styles, factors influencing the employees to work hard and the experience of leaders in adopting appropriate leadership styles among others. To address the stated requirements, content analysis will be an ideal method that can be utilised for evaluating data gathered from the questionnaire survey . The feedback of the questionnaire survey will be evaluated and justified based on information gathered from the secondary sources such as literature. The secondary sources those will be used in this research are peer reviewed journals articles and books related to the research topic .   

The questionnaire survey will be focused on sufficing the research objectives by including the factors that have been mentioned in the research. The data analysis will therefore serve beneficial in understanding the factors that are likely to motivate the employees as a result of effective leadership styles. In this context, close-ended questions will be integrated to allow a clear understanding on the factors as open-ended questions might lead to shift in focus from the research objective due to differences in opinion among the participants. The data obtained from questionnaire survey will also be separately analysed using thematic analysis . Thematic analysis refers to compare and contrast approach, which will help to enhance the understanding on differences between the leadership styles and its effects on employees’ performance. Hence, it can be ascertained that adopting mixed approach along with the stated tools will serve effective in exploring current scenario associated with the leadership styles and motivational theories .        

Research Limitation

The impediments of the research depict the multifaceted nature amid the time spent evaluating research. The researcher being an understudy by calling does not have the gainful advantages for the lead the subject matter. Research confinement stays as hindrances that come amidst the course of a research proposal, which distinctive centers and determinations are doubtful to be secured under the principles of the point.

There are certain limitations that can be highlighted in the research based on the methodology followed for collecting quantitative and qualitative data. The questionnaire survey will include close-ended questions, which indicate that participants can only provide feedback based on the provided answers. This might not provide a transparent outcome on their opinion as they cannot describe their viewpoints in details. In this regard, the research outcome will not be able to provide a coherent understanding on the current issues or factors those actually influence employees to enhance their performance. 

Conclusion

From the overall discussion it can be concluded that leadership styles and motivational theories play a vital role in enhancing the employees’ performance in organization setting. Wide ranges of research methodologies or approaches have been discussed in this research proposal through which an organization can analyze the advantages and limitations of the leadership styles in terms of improving relation between the employees and leaders as well as implement effective strategies to enhance employees’ performance. Adopting mixed method is the most important and effective approach for this research through which the changes of leadership styles over time can be evaluated along with the requirements of employees in present scenario.

 

References

Babatunde, O. & Emem, I. ‘The Impact of Leadership Style on Employee’s Performance in an Organization’. Public Policy and Administration Research, Vol.5, No.1, 2015, pp. 193-205.

Byerly, B. ‘Measuring the Impact of Employee Loss’. Performance Improvement, Vol. 51, No. 5, 2012, pp. 40-47.

Creswell, J. W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 4th Ed. SAGE Publications, New York 2013.

Doyle, L., Brady, A. M. & Bryne, G. ‘An Overview of Mixed Methods Research’. Journal of Research in Nursing, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2009, pp. 175–185.

Dym, B. & Hutson, H. Leadership in Nonprofit Organizations. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, 2005.

Forum Europaeum on Company Groups. ‘Proposal to Facilitate the Management of Cross-Border company Groups in Europe’. European Company and Financial Law Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2015.

Glanz, J. Finding Your Leadership Style. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Va., 2002.

Hofisi, C., Hofisi, M. & Mago, S. ‘Critiquing Interviewing as a Data Collection Method’. MJSS, Vol. 5, No. 16, 2014, pp. 60-64.

Iqbal, N., S. Anwar, & N. Haider. ‘Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Performance’. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol. 5, Iss. 5, 2015, pp. 1-6.

Jha, N. Research Methodology. Abhishek Publications, Chandigarh, 2008.

Kvale, S. Doing Interviews. SAGE, London, 2008.

Ladegard, G. & Gjerde, S. ‘Leadership Coaching, Leader Role-Efficacy, and Trust in Subordinates’. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2014, pp. 631-646.

Marriott, H. ‘How can the Community of Enquiry (CoE) methodology be used to help make the decision making processes of a school managment team (SMT) in South Africa more inclusive, democratic, effective and collaborative?’. ETD Collection, , 2015 (assessed 11 June 2016).

Mehrabi, J., Roozbehani, M. T., Naseri, S. & Samangooei, B. ‘Impact of Leadership Development on Employees’ Performance’. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2012, pp. 154-159.

Mensah, J. ‘A “Coalesced Framework” of Talent Management and Employee Performance’. Int J Productivity & Perf Mgmt, Vol. 64, No. 4, 2015, pp. 544-566.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J. & Collins, K. T. ‘A Typology of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research’. The Qualitative Report, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2007, pp. 281–316.

Ojokuku, R.M., Odetayo, T.A. & Sajuyigbe, A.S. ‘Impact of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance: A Case Study of Nigerian Banks’. American Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2012, pp. 202-207.

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San Lam, C. & O’Higgins, E. ‘Enhancing Employee Outcomes’. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2012, pp.149-174.

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Soiferman, L. K. ‘Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches’. Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches, 2010, pp. 1-23. 

Terrell, S. R. ‘Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies’. The Qualitative Report, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2012, pp. 254-280.

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