logical fallacy

  1. Identify an example of a logical fallacy in each argument and explain why it is an example of fallacious reasoning.
  2. Analyze the different points of view in the point/counterpoint essays from “Methods of Motivation” and explain what each author’s view has to say about culture and goals.

Answer:

I. Logical Fallacies:

  1. Argument: “You can’t prove that ghosts don’t exist, so they must be real.” Logical Fallacy: This argument is an example of the fallacy of “appeal to ignorance,” where someone argues that something must be true because it hasn’t been proven false or vice versa. This is faulty reasoning because lack of evidence does not prove or disprove anything.
  2. Argument: “All dogs bark, and Spot barks, so Spot must be a dog.” Logical Fallacy: This argument is an example of the fallacy of “false analogy,” where someone makes an analogy between two things that are not truly comparable. In this case, barking is not a characteristic unique to dogs, so the argument is invalid.
  3. Argument: “I know that vaccines are dangerous because I read it on a blog.” Logical Fallacy: This argument is an example of the fallacy of “appeal to authority,” where someone claims that a statement must be true because it came from an authority figure or a popular source. In this case, the source (a blog) is not a credible authority on the topic of vaccines, so the argument is invalid.

II. Points of View in “Methods of Motivation”: The point/counterpoint essays in “Methods of Motivation” present two different perspectives on the role of culture and goals in motivating individuals.

The first author argues that culture plays a significant role in motivating individuals, and that cultural factors such as values and beliefs can shape the goals that people pursue. According to this perspective, people are more likely to be motivated when their goals align with their cultural values, and cultural factors can influence the way people perceive and pursue success. For example, someone from a collectivist culture may be motivated by the prospect of helping their community, while someone from an individualistic culture may be motivated by personal achievement.

The second author takes a different view, arguing that goals are primarily shaped by individual factors such as personality, interests, and personal experiences. According to this perspective, cultural factors can play a role in shaping individuals’ goals, but personal factors are more important in determining what motivates people. For example, someone with an adventurous personality may be motivated by the prospect of taking risks and trying new things, regardless of their cultural background.

Overall, these two perspectives suggest that both cultural and individual factors can play a role in motivating individuals, and that the relationship between culture and motivation is complex and multifaceted.

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