Management In Health Care System

Write an essay about the concept of management and its role in health care system.

The essay is about the concept of management and its role in health care system. Management is the process of coordination of efforts of people to achieve common goals and objectives. It involves planning, organizing, detailing and controlling the particular department in the organization to accomplish the goals of the company. Resourcing is an important aspect of management which involves the deployment and manipulation of all forms of resources in the organization (like finance, employees, natural resource and technological). Successful management depends on techniques of leadership, decision making, and coordination. In the words of Henry Foyal, ‘Management is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control activities of others.’ The essay will give detail about management in health care system through management theories. It will explain the ways of managerial planning and its implication in health care system. It will highlight the benefits of planning and how people manage employees and physical resources in health care system.

Health care is also a complex system where proper coordination between medical staff is crucial for efficient health care delivery. Health care management is a system that ensures that all departments within health facility are running smoothly with the right people to get the desired health outcomes. Trained and experienced medical staff knows the expectation of patients and uses the health care resources efficiently to attain specific results. Healthcare management is a high demanding profession now that gives proper direction for health care delivery. The success of health care organization is dependent on coordination of highly specialized disciplines. Health care managers are involved in recruiting and developing staffs, allocating and spending resources also or reduction of services. Their decision making focuses not just on giving exceptional health service to patients but also on monitoring performance target of each medical staff (Swayne et al., 2012).

This section will describe some of the management theories. There is no single best way to management in the workplace, but what makes the difference is the particular approach taken by an individual. Therefore, through the analysis of different theories, this section describes the specific approaches taken in each theory. One of them is the Contingency Theory, which emphasizes the importance of a leader’s attitude and personality in the action they take. Leadership style is of two types-one is task-motivated, and another is relationship-motivated. Task-motivated leadership focuses on the accomplishment of task whereas relationship-motivated leadership depends on building an interpersonal relationship. According to this theory, manager’s decision making is dependent on the situation they face, and they take the most appropriate decision according to the current situation (Mikes & Kaplan, 2014, October). Thus leader’s ability to deal with a situation is contingent upon situational factors. It is a class of behavioral theory that can be utilized by health care administrators to solve real problems in a healthcare setting. They blend their own experience with established contingency models to come to clinical decision making (Kongstvedt, 2012).

Another theory is the Systems theory where a leader knows how different systems influence an employee and how they have an impact on the system. It is dependent on the broad perspective of a leader where he/she examines the pattern of work in their organization and accordingly develops programs where each member works collectively for achieving the goals of the organization (Birolini, 2012). The national health care system is many countries are ineffective and faulty.  Leaders in such health care centers can use systems theory to encourage a participative health care system where both patients and employees are empowered. Many health care systems have not met the requirements of standard health care. They may be facing problems of inadequate medical staff, lack of health financing, drug supply, and negligence in health care delivery. The system approach of management may be useful in this regard to analyzing the defects in particular health care system and make strategies to eliminate the problem. Many health experts reveal that competition should take place not on the kind of health plan and its network, but on the degree of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the individual (Ball et al., 2013). 

The Chaos theory of management states that certain situations in the organization cannot be controlled. With the growth of organization, complexity, and susceptibility to the group increases. The theory reveals that organization put efforts to manage complexity and in this way they continue to evolve and change. It deals with the changing relationship between order and disorder in the work system. It proposes that random events can occur in the organization because of the complexity of the system (Koehler et al., 2014). The two components of chaos theory are all idea relies on a system, and small events may lead complex set of events. One study identified the implications of chaos service in nursing management. When nursing becomes complex, it is important that leaders do the effective business planning and time management. Components of chaos theory can play a role in predicting service outcome and its impact on the management of health care services. The benefits of this theory on nursing management is that it helps in tracking the progress of health care service and manipulating the change by introducing new variables that are promising for the future. It is useful in evaluating the effectiveness of health care service by analysis of starting and end state of health activity (Hill et al., 2014).

The management as a discipline theory came up from Gordon’s Classroom of Management theory. It is a method of classroom behavioral management where each child takes the responsibility of their action to become self-reliant and attentive students. This approach is necessary regarding its stress on discipline. It can be utilized in other organization also for effective management. It will help in maintaining smoothness and momentum in work. Advanced clinical practice relies on the efficient use of theory in health care practice. A nursing leader or a team leader in medical staff can apply the discipline theory to facilitate change in the system. Self-management behavior in health care staff creates a sense of responsibility in person. If medical teams are vigilant enough to maintain a high quality of care, improved health status can be seen (Alexander 2013). 

This section is about managerial planning in health care organization. Planning action is crucial before implementation of ideas because it helps in extensive analysis of work system and framing changes according to the drawbacks identified in a particular workplace. Health care operation has also become less predictive because of instant emergency cases coming up. This has made planning vital in health care. Health care organization can survive only when to predict the future, contemplate issues that may arise and plan rationally according to the changes identified. The purpose of planning is health is to make sure that patients receive timely and effective treatment as far as possible (Bohmer, 2013). 

During planning in health care management, health team leader’s focus is on external domains such as activities and resources outside the health care organization and the internal domain like daily health care activities like maintaining the number and medical efficiency of health care staff, individual performance, and quality of care. Health care administrators have control on internal domains but not on external domains such as basic community needs, nature of the population and getting reimbursements from Medicare insurers. Therefore smart planning is essential in balancing dual aspects of health care (Oleske, 2014).

The first thing that needs to be clear is why a health care needs to make a strategic plan? Firstly it is required when an organization has limited resources for high standard health care delivery. Strategic planning by health care leaders helps in allocation of resources which retains only the best medical staffs to stay in health care service. Secondly, planning is essential because of the presence of highly skilled and professional competitors all around. Strategic planning helps in quickly finding highly qualified trained professionals according to the demands of the community (Hans et al., 2012).

Three kinds of planning are prevalent in health care system-dispersed health planning, focused health planning, and central health planning. Dispersed health care plan consists of collective decision making by all individuals in the health care system. It involves identification of health care problems, the establishment of priorities, acquisition of resources according to set priorities, coordination of activities with health personnel’s and choosing best activities in the implementation of best health care service. Health care administrators identify the types of disease and health facilities they will specialize. The plan is translated into health care service by transfer and exchange of goals among each health care staff. But certain gaps and inconsistencies exist in the distribution of health care employees and services. It leads to negative results when all members do not follow the decision. This type of planning cannot be developed by a separate group of individuals and organization (Hulshof et al., 2012).

The focused health plan is the voluntary association of team members to solve common problems. In this case, the interest of a large group is focused on serving health care needs of patients. It is an effort to develop the health care system continuously. It balances the self-interest of employees with that of the client who is indirectly affected by the decisions. Central health planning differs from dispersed planning as it covers a broad segment of health care. It is dependent on funds through Medicare programs. Integration of all the three healthcare planning will be beneficial in fulfilling the objectives of health care service. For example on duty line management, a manager is responsible for making decisions related to staffing, budget and financial control of health care service. Services may include cardiology, oncology, mental health, pediatricians, physical rehabilitation and many others. Proper planning on duty line management helps in lowering cost and raising the standards of care to satisfy the health care needs of more and more customers (Ball et al., 2013).

Planning in health care is a rigorous process based on formal expectation and insight into future attainment of goals. Therefore, the benefits of planning in health care are enormous. It leads to purposeful organization of activities which reduces cost and minimize the chance of wasting resources. Making plan in advance for future helps in the efficient and smooth operation of health care services with minimum chance of error. It provides a systematic direction to go forward and reduce all the ambiguities in the process.  Efficient coordination of activities helps in minimizing haphazard approaches. Strategic planning is the rational way of securing the future of health care organization. The process helps health care leaders to identify hidden opportunities or threats in the health care system. It gives them the advantage of acting and rectifying mistakes beforehand. It provides a framework for analyzing the professional growth of staffs and encouraging the medical teams to perform their task according to the vision and objectives of the plan. A good and smart strategy is the key to maintaining reputation in health care (Claxton et al., 2013).

Strategic planning provides clarity among chaotic situation in health care organization. Commitment and trust are built where a patient trust is designed for the particular hospital for a lifetime. Communicating health care vision to all health staffs has a powerful impact on them. Employees are motivated by a well-crafted plan, and they put their extra effort to bring ideas to fruition. Strategic plan helps in operating according to the vision but not on circumstances. Effective planning in health care promotes employee engagement which ultimately has an impact on the patient’s health and quality of health care service. Active medical leaders provide accountability by their skillful way of communicating the vision to all medical staff (Kongstvedt, 2012).

On the whole, it can be concluded proper planning is essential in the complex process of health care systems. It helps to minimize errors in health care delivery and giving the best care possible to all patients. This essay gave detail on the concept of management in health care. Through the analysis of different management theories, it explained the application of the principles in health care system. It revealed the importance of managerial planning in health care system and different ways of planning that exist in health care services. It also gave detail into the benefits of managerial planning and its implications for health care in the future. 


Alexander, K. (2013). Facilities management: theory and practice. Routledge.

Ball, M., Weaver, C., & Kiel, J. (Eds.). (2013). Healthcare information management systems: Cases, strategies, and solutions. Springer Science & Business Media.

Ball, M., Weaver, C., & Kiel, J. (Eds.). (2013). Healthcare information management systems: Cases, strategies, and solutions. Springer Science & Business Media.

Birolini, A. (2012). Quality and reliability of technical systems: theory, practice, management. Springer Science & Business Media.

Bohmer, R. M. (2013). Designing care: aligning the nature and management of health care. Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Business Press, 2009..

Claxton, G., Rae, M., Panchal, N., Damico, A., Whitmore, H., Bostick, N., & Kenward, K. (2013). Health benefits in 2013: moderate premium increases in employer-sponsored plans. Health Affairs, 32(9), 1667-1676.

Hans, E. W., Van Houdenhoven, M., & Hulshof, P. J. (2012). A framework for healthcare planning and control. In Handbook of healthcare system scheduling (pp. 303-320). Springer US.

Hill, C. W., Jones, G. R., & Schilling, M. A. (2014). Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning.

Hulshof, P. J., Kortbeek, N., Boucherie, R. J., Hans, E. W., & Bakker, P. J. (2012). Taxonomic classification of planning decisions in health care: a structured review of the state of the art in OR/MS. Health systems, 1(2), 129-175.

Koehler, G. A., Kress, G. G., & Miller, R. L. (2014). What disaster response management can learn from chaos theory. Crisis and Emergency Management: Theory and Practice, 178, 111-130.

Kongstvedt, P. R. (2012). Essentials of managed health care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Kongstvedt, P. R. (2012). Essentials of managed health care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Mikes, A., & Kaplan, R. S. (2014, October). Towards a contingency theory of enterprise risk management. AAA.

Oleske, D. M. (2014). Epidemiology and the delivery of health care services. Springer.

Swayne, L. E., Duncan, W. J., & Ginter, P. M. (2012). Strategic management of health care organizations. John Wiley & Sons.

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