Methodological Review

Discuss about the Methodological Review.

The aim of the research is to focus the light upon medical tourism in providing services to individuals. Thus, the study would focus upon the following objectives:

  • To determine the features that motivate people to engage in medical tourism
  • To determine prospective medical tourist’s aspect of information search and factors that influence it      
  • To specify the evaluation process in alternative tourism destination on the part of medical tourism

Methodological Review

The three academic journals that is going to be reviewed are:

  • Medical tourism and factors that help in choosing destination
  • The framing of medical tourism in middle and low countries according to Australian media
  • Quality of service provided in medical tourism: some empirical findings

Overview of Research Study

In the first research study the journal is about Thailand in Asia as medical tourism destination as tourist from Europe also visits the place. In year 2008 Thailand tourism attracted more than 14.6m tourists that generated around AUD$18,259.4m (Jotikasthira, 2010). It was noticed by Thailand residents that people are coming to the places for seeking medical treatment as in abroad countries the treatment is expensive. They have to wait in queues that are long due to this reasons the market of Thailand has developed its medical services. The government is also promoting the services in regards to patients by working in cooperation with private health centers for promoting international market for medical tourism. The number of patients receiving treatments is increasing due to trained nurses and doctors, high hospitality provided to clients and using innovative medical technologies for providing quality care.

In the second article it is about Australian media framing their view on medical tourism in low and middle income countries. This concept is related to healthcare by adhering to the rules and regulation of the country in which the treatment is being offered. The media forms an important source in generating information about the ideas that public has beyond the borders and countries. This possible due the fact that low cost of travel and rise of middle class people (Imison and Schweinsberg, 2013). The country that is designated to undertake the process is having several advantages such as emphasizing up on the return of medical practitioners, raising healthcare standard and earning foreign income. This phenomenon is growing globally as with the assistance of medical and travel services by promoting the quality served to the public regarding healthcare. The aim of the research is to work on media in-depth by covering Australian media dataset.

In the last journal the focus is on providing quality service to patients who are coming from international locations. According to report generated by Deloitte in 2008 the industry is worth of US 4bn for the Asian market in 2012. In the worldwide industry of medical tourism it is worth USD 60m and alternatively, quality care is important for less developed countries (Manaf et al., 2015). The three aspects related to medical tourism are- administrative quality, medical staff and supporting services to patients. The three variables used for depicting quality of medical staff are perceived value, future intention regarding treatment process and satisfaction to patients. This research is about policy makers and managers in hospital for understanding this industry in-depth.

Critical Review of Research Methods

The research methods adopted in three articles are discussed below:

Empirical Study 1

The methodological of the article starts with the introduction by justifying the research methods incorporated in research. The methodology is based upon experiments, hypothesis and testing theory in the dominant paradigm. In implementing alternative paradigms constructivists uses the action, unstructured interviews, research, grounded theory and participant. In critical paradigm action research, target group and observation of participant is vital in approach. The use of cross sectional research design is implemented as more than two samples are chosen with using longitudinal surveys for collecting more than one sample (Jha, 2008). The data collection method was through questionnaire with international customers and Pilot study with Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). The data was analyzed via SPSS software a statistical program by generating it with their consent. The research strategy has to be in aligning with research with being collecting the data by treating it with justice, beneficence, respect and integrity. The principles that are governing in collecting the data are as follows:

The participants who are involved in the approach should be valued by maintaining the privacy and taking care of their physical health. In time of asking the respondents their views their individual identities were divulge.

  • Informative Search and Public

This principle is contribution of knowledge in community that is available to public

The risk is taking time of participants for the survey through questionnaire by forcing the participant not to state confidential information on sensitive issues (Kothari, 2004). The administration can make physical contact with respondents and researcher.   

  • Participation by Informing and Voluntary
  • Being ethical in approach

From the above analysis of methodological from article 1 it can be concluded that constructivism theory is used as the positive is human beings form their own social realities. This is an experimental approach as it is used by individuals in different manner as this is on the basis of structure and understanding. The use of cross sectional design is effective as it is not time consuming plus works on specific point.  Another is data used in this research helps in creating new concepts and theories. The working through ethical integrity is beneficial as organization should maintain it by valuing the customers. The mode of data collection is feasible with both the methods from respondents and tourism body.

Empirical Study 2

The article 2 is based upon Australian media by generating the database from University of Sydney’s Australia Health News Research Collaboration (AHNRC). The study was drawing its items from television and newspaper as the sample taken was from between 2005-2011. In Australia such services are either banned or are attracting controversy but, still the media has framed it by making it an important part. The newspapers and television selected for reporting the data was served in the format of location of publication, type of story and year. In between 2005-2011 television stories collected were 65 and newspaper stories gathered were 65 in number. The coverage was covered by media with using coding software that are discussed below with categories are given below:

Appeals- this includes features used by news actor, patient, journalist and being a potential client for the project

Risks- This risk is associated with medical procedures by working in relation to news actor or journalist and a reason that will help in overseas market.

Credibility – This credibility is generated in the minds of mentioned individual by working with integrity through the potential cause or in line with the patient.

This selection is based on random sampling by choosing the items over 20% from both newspaper and television. From the research it was concluded that is the simple strategy that is used in population as in this sampling mode equal chance of participation by providing all respondents equal opportunity (Kumar, 2005). The sample group chosen is effective as this practice is effective in analyzing the situation with required population and with large sample size. The result is focusing upon newspaper with 80.2% and television with 81.62% that is generated in high proportion in the year between periods 2007-2008 when medical tourism was at peak. In this result the dilemma faced was in the single category in the risk mentioned factor that constitutes of 53% of stories.

The methodology used here in the article is in a different mode and style as the strategy is abiding by the research ethics and principles. The data collected is between the respondents and hospital authorities as the maintenance of personal details have to be included.  

Empirical Study 3

In third article the data collection method used are questionnaire that is used in self administered and the area covered is huge. Total of 22 respondents were used for receiving treatment by marking them on the Likert scale that rates the individual from 1 to 5 by describing strongly agree to strongly disagree. The method used was using mean for the variables and for survey design systematic feedback is implemented. The questionnaire was also made in different languages like Indonesian and Arabic as the respondents are foreign customers receiving treatment in Malaysia. The sampling method used in data collection is convenience rather than random sampling as participants was patients. From 1000 questionnaire sent only 173 was evaluated and received by using SPSS software by the response rate being 17.3%. (Manaf et al., 2015) The reliability of data was considered with Cronbach alpha as it involved the various factors such as:

  • Providing quality services through support
  • Quality of service through administration
  • Quality that is present in medical staff

The light is shed up on having the level of patient for medical tourism that is entering the Malaysian market. From the above research it can be sated that incorporation of convenience sampling is benefitting the study as it aims in collecting primary data from the population. This is more into primary source that depends on collection of data through dignified source with the help of surveys, questionnaires and face to face interview techniques (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2006). This includes respondents are being engaged for analyzing it in more in-depth that will be add to beneficial for understanding the market structure properly. This will give more details into the fact that medical tourism is more widely used by having a mode of marketing.

With this some cons attached to it are huge sampling error and the mode of validity used for data is the right approach. In order to generate consistency in data in the internal sources Cronbach’s Alpha is incorporated for performing the quantitative research. The research lacks validity of data which is more important as the data collected should be valid in case of measuring it. The feedback that is generated from patients at the time of exit was encouraged. This method was both critical and good as in case the patients are unhappy with the treatment he would provide a bad feedback. But, at the same time if the patients are happy he will provide good feedback about the medical tourism part. Though, it was conducted with the intention that patients are out so it will be fresh feedback but also challenging.

This collection method is done with hospital and participants by maintain the ethical principles and not sharing it with other professionals.     


From the evaluation above of the three articles regarding research methodology it can be concluded that three articles chosen have different views and concepts. Each of them has taken the same data collection methods with hospitals authorities and participants. The approach used is different and varied in nature and aspect. The research design used in the study should be effective in studying the research. As each design is different from each other and for the study experimental should be used as the research is based up on experiments. In this random sampling is chosen as in article 3 and at the same time cross sectional study is also beneficial. As here is three materials incorporated population is taken into consideration.

The research approach should be in systematic method as in healthcare this is used at most of the times with less or no expense at all. The sampling taken could be non-probabilistic samplings where the participants get equal chance but the sample size chosen should be effective for generating the result as in the above cases.  


Imison, M. and Schweinsberg, S. (2013). Australian news media framing of medical tourism in low- and middle-income countries: a content review. BMC Public Health. [online]Availableat:
-2458-13-109.pdf*~hmac=1467aa7262ea1984f83ffd63b2145de7a6b3f9fd1ba09240ce9af964a577fc73 [Accessed 25 Aug. 2016].

Jha, N. (2008). Research methodology. Chandigarh: Abhishek Publications.

Jotikasthira, N. (2010). Salient factors influencing medical tourism destination choice. Southern Cross University. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Aug. 2016].

Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd.

Kumar, R. (2005). Research methodology. London: SAGE.

Manaf, N., Kassim, P., Alavi, R., Dahari, Z. and Hussin, H. (2015). Medical tourism service quality: finally someempirical
findings. ResearchGate. [online] Available at:
_empirical_findings [Accessed 25 Aug. 2016].

Scruggs, T. and Mastropieri, M. (2006). Applications of research methodology. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.
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