Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras

First, review the definitions of “Paleolithic” and “Neolithic” and the main features of each period in human history. Then reflect on how society changes when people go from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Then list three advantage and three disadvantage of how people lived in the Paleolithic and the Neolithic periods. In a concluding few sentences explain how we know the advantages/disadvantages you mentioned; are the sources human skeletons? Archaeology? Written descriptions? Do you think it would be easier to farm and manage livestock or to be a hunter or gatherer.


Paleolithic vs. Neolithic:

  • Paleolithic Period: Also known as the Old Stone Age, it lasted from about 2.6 million years ago to around 10,000 BCE. During this time, humans were primarily hunter-gatherers, meaning they relied on hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants for sustenance. They lived in small, nomadic groups and used simple stone tools and weapons.
  • Neolithic Period: The Neolithic, or New Stone Age, began around 10,000 BCE and lasted until approximately 3,000 BCE in some areas. One of the defining features of this period was the transition from a nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a settled agricultural lifestyle. People began to domesticate plants and animals, leading to the development of farming communities and the first permanent settlements. This shift also saw the development of more complex societies, with the emergence of pottery, weaving, and other crafts.

Changes in Society: The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture brought about significant changes in human society. Settlements became more permanent, populations grew, social hierarchies developed, and new technologies emerged to support agricultural practices.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

Paleolithic Period:


  1. Adaptability: Hunter-gatherers were highly adaptable to different environments, able to move with the seasons and changes in resources.
  2. Balanced Diet: Their diet consisted of a variety of wild plants and animals, providing a diverse range of nutrients.
  3. Close-knit Communities: Small, nomadic groups fostered strong social bonds and cooperation.


  1. Constant Mobility: Hunter-gatherers had to constantly move in search of food, limiting the accumulation of possessions and stability.
  2. Vulnerability to Environmental Changes: Reliance on wild resources made communities vulnerable to fluctuations in food availability.
  3. Limited Technological Development: The tools and weapons used by Paleolithic societies were relatively simple compared to later periods.

Neolithic Period:


  1. Food Surplus: Agriculture allowed for the production of surplus food, enabling population growth and the development of specialized roles within society.
  2. Settlements and Infrastructure: Permanent settlements provided stability and allowed for the development of infrastructure such as roads, irrigation systems, and buildings.
  3. Technological Innovation: The Neolithic saw advancements in agriculture, pottery, and other crafts, leading to improved standards of living.


  1. Increased Disease: Settlements and the domestication of animals increased the spread of diseases among humans.
  2. Social Inequality: With the accumulation of wealth and resources, social hierarchies began to emerge, leading to inequalities within society.
  3. Environmental Impact: Intensive farming practices could lead to soil degradation, deforestation, and other environmental issues.

Sources of Knowledge: Our understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of both periods comes from a variety of sources, including archaeological evidence such as tools, pottery, and settlement patterns, as well as human remains and artifacts found at archaeological sites. Additionally, anthropological studies of contemporary hunter-gatherer societies provide insights into the lifestyle of Paleolithic humans. Written descriptions and accounts from early civilizations also offer valuable information about the transition to agriculture and its impacts on society.

Ease of Living: Whether it’s easier to farm and manage livestock or to be a hunter-gatherer depends on various factors, including environmental conditions, technological advancements, and societal structures. Farming and animal husbandry offer the potential for stable food sources and larger populations, but they also require significant investment of labor and resources. Hunter-gatherer lifestyles, while more mobile and adaptable, can be more precarious in terms of food security and face greater challenges in times of environmental change. Ultimately, the ease of living would vary depending on the specific context and circumstances of each society.

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