Philosophy Questions Discussion

1)What is the conclusion of the following argument:

God–like the rest of us, if we are moral–approves of what is right and disapproves of what is wrong. And like the rest of us, He or She has to use intellect to find out what the grounds of morality are, so as to know what to approve and disapprove. But if this is so, morality exists independently of religion and is as open to discovery by us as by God. (A.K. Bierman)

a)He or She has to use intellect to find out what the grounds of morality are,

b)Morality exists independently of religion and is as open to discovery by us as by God.

c)God–like the rest of us, if we are moral–approves of what is right and disapproves of what is wrong.

d)So as to know what to approve and disapprove

2)What is the conclusion of the following argument:

A person’s fate is not always determined by the positions of the stars and planets at the time of birth because if it was, any two people born at the same time and place would have the same fate, and we know that this is not always so in the case of twins.

a)Astrology is of the devil!

b)if it was, any two people born at the same time and place would have the same fate

c)A person’s fate is not always determined by the positions of the stars and planets at the time of birth.

d)we know that this is not always so in the case of twins.

3)What is the conclusion of the following argument:

There must have been some moral flaw in the creature or in his situation to set up the tension of temptation; for creaturely freedom in itself and in the absence of any temptation cannot lead to sin. Thus, the very fact that the creature sins refutes the suggestion that until that moment he was a finitely perfect being living in an ideal creaturely relationship to God. (John Hick)

a)Genesis is mythological

b)creaturely freedom in itself and in the absence of any temptation cannot lead to sin.

c)the very fact that the creature sins refutes the suggestion that until that moment he was a finitely perfect being living in an ideal creaturely relationship to God.

d)There must have been some moral flaw in the creature or in his situation to set up the tension of temptation

4)What is the conclusion of the following argument?

The values of science and the values of democracy are concordant…. Science thrives on, indeed requires, the free exchange of ideas; its values are antithetical to secrecy. Science holds to no special vantage points or no privileged positions. Both science and democracy encourage unconventional opinions and vigorous debate. Both demand adequate reason, coherent argument, rigorous standards of evidence and honesty. (Carl Sagan)

a)Science holds to no special vantage points or no privileged positions.

b)The values of science and the values of democracy are concordant.

c)Science thrives on, indeed requires, the free exchange of ideas;

d)Both science and democracy encourage unconventional opinions and vigorous debate.

5)Is the following passage an argument or not an argument?

The true meaning of scripture can never be wholly comprised in a literal reading of the text, since that text points beyond itself to a reality which cannot adequately be expressed in words and concepts. (Karen Armstrong)

a)Non argument

b)Argument

6)Is the following passage an argument or not an argument?

I find the idea that God has ordained a scheme under which the large majority of the human race are…condemned to perdition, so morally repulsive it would undermine the Godness of any being who was said to be God. (John Hick)

a)Argument

b)Non argument

7)Is the following passage an argument or not an argument?

I cannot think that I am thinking when I am not. For in this case, and only in this case, the mere fact that I think that I am thinking guarantees that I am thinking. It is itself an example of thinking. (Simon Blackburn)

a)Non argument

b)Argument

8)Is the following passage an argument or a non-argument?

Because the “reasonable man” is not simply the average man but a normative social ideal, we should not admit that gay-bashing disgust is ever the emotion of that hypothetical person. (Martha Nussbaum)

a)Argument

b)Non argument

9)Is the following passage an argument or not an argument?

That man was so created as that he was not under the necessity of dying may be easily proved, since, as we said before, it is contrary to the wisdom and justice of God that He should compel man, whom He made upright for everlasting happiness, to suffer death for no fault. It follows, therefore, that had man never sinned, he never would have died. (Anselm)

a)Argument

b)Non argument

10)Is the following passage an argument or not an argument?

If we take eternity to mean not infinite temporal duration but timelessness, then eternal life belongs to those who live in the present. (Ludwig Wittgenstein)

a)Non argument

b)Argument

11)Is the following passage an argument or not an argument?

Inheriting the sovereignty of beauty [women have] chosen rather to be short-lived queens than labour to obtain the sober pleasures that arise from equality. (Mary Wollstonecraft)

a)Non argument

b)Argument

12)What is the missing (unexpressed) premise or conclusion for the following argument?

Of course Bernie supports Medicare for all , he’s a socialist.

a)If Bernie is a socialist, then he supports Medicare for all

b)If Bernie supports Medicare for all, then he is a socialist

c)Medicare for all provides healthcare for everyone

d)The US will never support socialism!

13)What is the missing (unexpressed) premise or conclusion for the following argument?

If it is reasonable to explain the effectiveness of homeopathy by appeal to some currently unknown mechanism, then there must be solid evidence that homeopathic treatments work. However, there is no such evidence.

a)It is not reasonable to explain the effectiveness of homeopathy by appeal to some currently unknown mechanism

b)The FDA and big Pharma have lied about homeopathy

c)It is reasonable to explain the effectiveness of homeopathy by appeal to some currently unknown mechanism

d)There is solid evidence that homeopathic treatments work

14)On a separate page, cast the argument below. Instructions on the casting technique are in the “text for argument analysis” document. Use the tree diagram that you have drawn to cast the argument to answer the next four questions:

Being a member of the human species is not a necessary condition for a being a person in the moral sense, because an alien from another planet could be a person without being a member of the human species. Being a member of the human species is not a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense, since someone who is brain dead in an irreversible coma is still a member of the human species but no longer a person in the moral sense. Hence, being a member of the human species is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense.

How many statements are in this argument?

a)3

b)6

c)5

d)4

15)What is the conclusion of the argument?

Being a member of the human species is not a necessary condition for a being a person in the moral sense, because an alien from another planet could be a person without being a member of the human species. Being a member of the human species is not a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense, since someone who is brain dead in an irreversible coma is still a member of the human species but no longer a person in the moral sense. Hence, being a member of the human species is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense.

a)someone who is brain dead in an irreversible coma is still a member of the human species but no longer a person in the moral sense

b)being a member of the human species is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense.

c)A fetus is not a person in the moral sense

d)an alien from another planet could be a person without being a member of the human species

16)Considering again the argument:

Being a member of the human species is not a necessary condition for a being a person in the moral sense, because an alien from another planet could be a person without being a member of the human species. Being a member of the human species is not a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense, since someone who is brain dead in an irreversible coma is still a member of the human species but no longer a person in the moral sense. Hence, being a member of the human species is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense.

The first sentence has two statements, does statement 1 support statement 2 or does statement 2 support statement 1

a)1 supports 2

b)2 supports 1

17)Considering again the argument:

Being a member of the human species is not a necessary condition for a being a person in the moral sense, because an alien from another planet could be a person without being a member of the human species. Being a member of the human species is not a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense, since someone who is brain dead in an irreversible coma is still a member of the human species but no longer a person in the moral sense. Hence, being a member of the human species is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for being a person in the moral sense.

The second sentence has two statements, does statement 3 support statement 4 or does statement 4 support statement 3?

a)3 supports 4

b)4 supports 3

18)Making repeated unwelcome sexual advances is a ___________________ condition for committing sexual harassment.

a)Sufficient

b)Necessary

19)Freedom of the press is a _____________________ condition for democracy.

a)Sufficient

b)Necessary

20)Drinking one bourbon, one scotch, and one beer is a _____________________ condition for feeling tipsy.

a)Necessary

b)Sufficient

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