1. Answer the following questions:
    1. What is meant by implicit and explicit memory?
    2. Compare declarative and procedural memory.
    3. Describe the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval.
    4. Describe the characteristics of short-term, long-term, and sensory memory.
    5. Define schema, iconic memory, echoic memory, procedural memory.
    6. Describe short term memory (STM), note its limited capacity, and discuss two ways to enhance STM.
    7. Compare semantic and episodic memory.
    8. Discuss interference theory.
    9. Discuss the difference between recall, recognition, and relearning.
    10. Explain the biological aspects of memory including the hippocampus.
    11. Explain some helpful ways to enhance memory.


  1. Implicit and Explicit Memory:
    • Implicit Memory: Implicit memory refers to the unconscious recall of information without deliberate effort. It includes skills, habits, and procedures that are acquired and expressed without conscious awareness. For example, riding a bicycle or tying shoelaces.
    • Explicit Memory: Explicit memory, also known as declarative memory, involves conscious recollection of information. It includes memories of facts, events, and personal experiences that can be consciously retrieved and verbalized. For example, recalling the name of the capital city of a country or remembering a specific birthday party.
  2. Declarative and Procedural Memory:
    • Declarative Memory: Declarative memory, a type of explicit memory, refers to the conscious recollection of facts and events. It includes semantic memory, which involves general knowledge and facts, and episodic memory, which involves personal experiences and events.
    • Procedural Memory: Procedural memory, a type of implicit memory, involves the unconscious recall of skills and procedures. It includes motor skills, habits, and routines that are learned through repetition and practice, such as riding a bike or typing on a keyboard.
  3. Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval:
    • Encoding: Encoding is the process of transforming sensory input into a form that can be stored in memory. It involves acquiring, processing, and organizing information for storage. Encoding can occur through visual, auditory, semantic, or other sensory modalities.
    • Storage: Storage involves maintaining encoded information over time. Information is stored in memory in various forms and structures, including sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
    • Retrieval: Retrieval is the process of accessing and bringing stored information into consciousness when needed. It involves recalling or recognizing previously encoded and stored information from memory.
  4. Characteristics of Short-Term, Long-Term, and Sensory Memory:
    • Short-Term Memory (STM): STM has limited capacity and duration, typically storing information for a few seconds to a minute. It is characterized by rapid decay and is involved in temporary maintenance and manipulation of information.
    • Long-Term Memory (LTM): LTM has virtually unlimited capacity and can store information for extended periods, ranging from minutes to years or even a lifetime. It is characterized by relatively stable storage and retrieval of information.
    • Sensory Memory: Sensory memory briefly holds incoming sensory information in its original sensory form (e.g., visual, auditory) for a fraction of a second to several seconds. It serves as a buffer between sensory input and short-term memory.
  5. Enhancing Short-Term Memory:
    • Chunking: Chunking involves organizing information into meaningful units or chunks, thereby increasing the amount of information that can be held in STM. For example, grouping digits in a phone number (e.g., 555-1234) makes it easier to remember.
    • Maintenance Rehearsal: Maintenance rehearsal involves repetitively verbalizing or mentally rehearsing information to keep it in STM. Repeating information over and over can help maintain it in STM and prevent decay.
  6. Semantic and Episodic Memory:
    • Semantic Memory: Semantic memory refers to general knowledge and facts about the world, independent of personal experience. It includes information about language, concepts, categories, and principles.
    • Episodic Memory: Episodic memory involves the recollection of specific events and personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place. It includes autobiographical memories of past events, experiences, and episodes.
  7. Interference Theory:
    • Interference theory suggests that forgetting occurs when new information interferes with the retrieval of previously stored information. There are two types of interference: proactive interference (old information interferes with new information) and retroactive interference (new information interferes with old information).
  8. Recall, Recognition, and Relearning:
    • Recall: Recall involves retrieving information from memory without external cues. It requires conscious effort and is typically more challenging than recognition.
    • Recognition: Recognition involves identifying or selecting previously encountered information from among alternatives. It is often easier than recall because external cues are provided to prompt retrieval.
    • Relearning: Relearning involves reacquiring knowledge or skills that were previously learned and then forgotten. It typically takes less time to relearn material than it did to learn it initially, indicating that some information remains stored in memory.
  9. Biological Aspects of Memory including the Hippocampus:
    • The hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation and consolidation of declarative memories, particularly episodic memories. It is involved in transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory and in spatial memory and navigation.
  10. Ways to Enhance Memory:
    • Practice Retrieval: Actively retrieving information from memory strengthens neural connections and enhances memory retention. Practice recalling information through self-testing or quizzing.
    • Use Mnemonic Devices: Mnemonic devices, such as acronyms, imagery, or associations, can aid in encoding and retrieval of information by providing meaningful connections and cues.
    • Get Sufficient Sleep: Adequate sleep is essential for memory consolidation and retention. Sleep plays a critical role in transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
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