Research Paper

800-900 words for the essay, plus a section of Further Reading

There are three main purposes in this assignment:

To give you practice at summarizing scholarly work in your own words. Any research

paper is a combination of your own ideas with facts or ideas that you have found in your research. Summarizing an argument (or article) is not easy, and it takes practice to learn what to information to include and what to leave aside.

To practice giving page numbers for the source of information even when you are not quoting the exact wording from your source.

To help you learn to search for scholarly articles on a given topic in Roman Civilization.

To practice consistent formatting for a bibliography.

Description of assignment:Select one of the articles. Prepare a summary (800-900 words plus Further Reading) that includes the following elements. Give a word count at the end of the assignment. The numbered points below indicate the elements to include in the assignment. You will be summarizing and evaluating a work rather than creating and supporting a thesis statement.

What is the problem/question that the scholar is trying to answer? What kind of ancient evidence does she or he use? These might be ancient written texts such as letters, plays, speeches, or historical writings. They might be ancient inscriptions. Some of the articles draw information from different types of artefacts, artworks, or buildings. You don’t need to name every ancient author that the writer mentions; instead, summarize the types of sources, perhaps naming a couple of the most important more specifically. Two or three sentences on sources is enough. This section basically works as an introduction.

What conclusions does he or she draw? Here is where you are largely summarizing the article. Be sure to state clearly what the author’s main argument is. This section will be the meat of your assignment and would be a few paragraphs long, perhaps two thirds of your words. I expect to see frequent page references to show particular information comes from (see below)

What is your reaction to the article? Discuss it in the context of ideas raised in class or concepts in the textbook (look for a chapter that addresses similar topics even if we have not discussed it in class just yet). Critiques? Further questions? Does it make you think of modern parallels? I anticipate about a paragraph here.

As you refer to particular ideas of the author, provide a reference with the page number. I expect to see frequent references. Chicago style uses footnotes (see examples below). You may also use a bracketed in-text reference (surname year, page), like this: (Vout 1996, 212-14). It is important to give references even when you are not making a direct quote.

Use only 1-3 direct quotes from the article within this summary (punctuated with quotation marks: (“ ”) and be sure to give the page number. This is practice at citing your source of information.

Further Reading. Identify four scholarly works held in the University of Manitoba library (digital or paper) that a person could read to learn more about the topic of the article. Look for items identified as a book or article (and book chapter is fine too but a little harder to format). Be sure to include at least one book and one article from a scholarly journal. They should be items published since 2000, the more recent the better. You do not need to read these works, just identify them and format them properly. Create a list called “Further reading” and list these works alphabetically, using correct formatting in the Chicago style (this link takes you to a downloadable Quick Guide from the library). The library catalogue itself and other tools will get you started on formatting entries, but you need to check them anyhow for consistency.

List of articles:

Carter, M. J. “Gladiatorial Combat: The Rules of Engagement.” Classical Journal, 102, no. 2 (2006): 97-114.

Huemoeller, Katharine P. D. “Freedom in Marriage? Manumission for Marriage in the Roman World.” Journal of Roman Studies 110 (2020): 123-139.

Vout, Caroline. “The Myth of the Toga: Understanding the History of Roman Dress.” Greece and Rome 43, no. 2 (1996): 204–220.

[some components to note for formatting: full first name unless author uses initials; capitalize important words in title; italicize title of journal; colon before page nos.]

Footnotes in Chicago style:

The first footnote gives full information. The page number is the one where the information comes from. It’s ok to give a run of pages.Lea M. Stirling, “A New Portrait of Livia from Thysdrus (El Jem, Tunisia),” American Journal of Archaeology 116, no. 4 (2012): 626.

If you refer to the same source again, you can abbreviate the information, and note there is a comma before the page number instead of a colon.Stirling, “Livia,” 627.

How do I find the articles?

Start at the main webpage of the library The search tab there looks through books and journals and works well with keywords from the authors and titles of the references above. If the article title doesn’t work, try the title of the book or journal.

Strategies for reading

I have chosen articles whose writing and argument seem clear to me, but they are serious, detailed works even so. They are written by scholars for other scholars and students. I recommend you read the article twice for the assignment.

Read through the article once to get the main argument. You will probably see names, places, terms or bits of Latin (etc.) that you don’t recognize. Keep going. Some of these may come into focus later; for others, you will find they are not necessary for understanding the broad argument. If they crop up frequently, underline them as something to come back to or look up.

The second time you read the article, take notes in your own words as you go. Note the page number where information comes from. This is useful when you want to show the location of particular information in your bracketed references. Taking notes in your own words helps you compose the assignment in your own words.

Formatting the list of Further Reading

Use the MLA stylesheet to format your list of Further Reading. There is a handy compressed instruction sheet here). The library catalogue can get you started on formatting entries, but you need to check them anyhow for consistency (such as capitalization, placement of commas, whether to use initials or full first names). For instance, sometimes the bibliography generators include the name of the e-publisher (e.g. Ebscohost) along with the author’s name. Sometimes they give a title in all capital letters. You need to correct these things if they occur. Use the stylesheet to format the bibliography, but you do not need to follow other components from this style for the rest of the assignment (such as whether or not there is a cover page).

Note that the list of Further Reading should be in alphabetical order. Lists of bibliography or Works Cited are normally alphabetized.

Submitting your paper

Format: Times New Roman 12 point font, double spacedLabel the file thus: SURNAME_firstname_CLAS1280_AuthorSubmit the paper to an Assignments folder in UMLearn (you will find it under the tab for Assessments).Papers are due by midnight on February 28.

Sample entry for a chapter in an edited book.

Students often have trouble citing a chapter from an edited volume. Here is some advice.

If one person wrote the whole book, just give the title of the book. You don’t need to name individual chapters in this situation. One way to tell that one person wrote the whole thing is that the table of contents will give only chapter titles and not individual titles.

There are also books called “edited volumes” where an editor or editors collect chapters written by a bunch of different people. Our textbook is an example. You can see the editors’

names on the cover, and then there are separate authors listed for different chapters. Note that the three editors also wrote chapters within the book.

When you cite a chapter from an edited volume, you need to provide the author(s) and title for the chapter AND the editor(s) and title for the book. You also have to give the run of pages within the book. So, we would cite chapter 5 from our textbook like this:

Ripat, Pauline. “Class and Status.” In Themes in Roman Society and Culture: An Introduction to Ancient Rome, edited by Matt Gibbs, Milorad Nikolic and Pauline Ripat, 88-111. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021.


Title: Freedom in Marriage: Exploring Manumission Practices in the Roman World

In Katharine P. D. Huemoeller’s article “Freedom in Marriage? Manumission for Marriage in the Roman World,” the scholar delves into the intricate dynamics of manumission practices in ancient Rome, specifically focusing on the intersection of freedom and marriage. The central question Huemoeller seeks to answer is whether manumission was used as a means to facilitate marriage in Roman society. To address this query, Huemoeller analyzes various types of ancient evidence, including legal texts, inscriptions, and historical writings, to uncover patterns and trends regarding manumission practices.

Huemoeller draws upon a range of ancient sources to construct her argument, highlighting the significance of manumission in Roman society and its implications for marital relationships. She examines legal texts such as the Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea, which regulated manumission and marriage laws in ancient Rome, providing insights into the legal framework surrounding freedom and marriage. Additionally, Huemoeller analyzes inscriptions documenting manumission ceremonies and dedications to freed individuals, shedding light on the social and cultural significance of manumission within the context of marriage.

One of the key conclusions drawn by Huemoeller is that manumission played a multifaceted role in facilitating marriage in the Roman world. While manumission was primarily a legal process granting freedom to slaves, Huemoeller argues that it was also utilized as a means to establish marital unions between slaves and free individuals. By examining patterns in manumission practices, Huemoeller demonstrates how freed individuals often entered into marital relationships with their former masters or other free individuals, thereby gaining social and legal recognition as spouses.

Furthermore, Huemoeller explores the complexities of freedom and marriage within the broader social and cultural context of ancient Rome. She challenges traditional assumptions about the rigid distinctions between slaves and free individuals, highlighting the fluidity of social status and the role of manumission in blurring these boundaries. Huemoeller’s analysis underscores the interconnectedness of freedom, marriage, and social mobility in Roman society, revealing the nuanced dynamics of power and agency within marital relationships.

My reaction to Huemoeller’s article is one of intrigue and appreciation for her meticulous research and insightful analysis. Her exploration of manumission practices sheds light on a lesser-known aspect of Roman society, offering new perspectives on the complexities of freedom and marriage in the ancient world. Huemoeller’s findings prompt further questions about the agency of individuals within marital relationships and the broader implications of manumission for social mobility and identity formation.

In reflecting on Huemoeller’s article, I am reminded of the parallels between ancient and modern notions of freedom and marriage. While the legal and social contexts may differ, the fundamental human desires for autonomy and companionship remain constant across time and culture. Huemoeller’s study serves as a valuable reminder of the enduring relevance of ancient history in understanding contemporary social dynamics and illuminating the complexities of the human experience.

Further Reading:

  1. Bradley, K. R. “Slavery and Society at Rome.” Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  2. Dixon, S. “The Roman Family.” Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
  3. Rawson, B. “The Family in Ancient Rome: New Perspectives.” Cornell University Press, 1986.
  4. Sebesta, J. L., and Bonfante, L. “The World of Roman Costume.” The University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.
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