Respond To Peers

Respond to  at least two of your colleagues on  2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not. APA format and at least 2 references

Peer 1

Symptoms of malabsorption like generalized edema are brought on by a lack of protein in the bloodstream called albumin. When albumin levels are decreased, there will be an increase in fluid retention and edema (Harvard 2022). One type of malabsorption syndrome is inherited through generations called hereditary folate malabsorption. This being an inherited condition points to genetics playing a part in the condition (Suryawanshi et al. (n.d.). For nutrients to be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, there are requirements of interactions between absorptive, motor, and secretory functions. Around fifty percent of proteins are absorbed in the small intestine and when protein and other nutrients are malabsorbed, inhibitory effects take place in the gastrointestinal tract. Malabsorption can be increased if a patient presents with an increase in gastrointestinal movement, such as diarrhea (Keller &Layer 2014). The cells that are involved in the process of malabsorption are the intestinal epithelial cells. The main type of cell that is found in the intestinal epithelium are enterocytes, which are simple columnar cells (Kong et al.  2018). These epithelial cells are covered in multiple tiny projections called microvilli that cover any free spaces. The microvilli markedly increase the cells surface area and share in the responsibility of absorption (McCance & Huether 2019). One thing that may change the way I view the process would be the gender of the patient. Knowing if the patient were male or female would play a part in knowing how the patient is processing nutrients. Women have a requirement of two and a half times more dietary iron than men and they need more protein than normal if they were to be pregnant (Publication card (n.d.). It has also been found that differences in body composition between women and men can play a part in protein metabolism. There has been a higher protein synthesis found in older women when compared to age and body mass similar men. While the protein may be synthesized faster, it has also been shown that there can be differences in protein turnover when patients have excess adipose tissue, which could also cause differences in the way I would view the patient and their specific situation (Markofski & Volpi 2011).

Peer 2

 Fats, carbs, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are just a few of the nutrients that the gastrointestinal system is involved in absorbing. Maldigestion refers to impaired nutritional digestion within the intestinal lumen or at the brush boundary, whereas malabsorption refers to decreased nutrient absorption at any location where nutrients are absorbed. Digestion and absorption are interconnected, notwithstanding the differences between maldigestion and malabsorption. Therefore, either of these processes of this interdependence is referred to as “malabsorption” in a lot of literature. For the sake of this discussion, the malabsorption syndromes mentioned shall mostly refer to those caused by small intestinal, pancreatic, or gallbladder malfunction (Zuvarox & Belletieri, 2022). The patient exhibited signs of malnutrition due to a lack of sufficient intake of nutrients in the body.

           Regarding the pathophysiology at a cellular level, it is interesting to know blood proteins have a tendency to draw water into our blood vessels. The most prevalent protein in the blood is albumin. Water may exit the blood vessels and accumulate in the tissues when the blood’s protein level is low. While fluid moves steadily from the plasma through the interstitium and into the lymph compartment, aberrant Starling’s forces elevated endothelial permeability or hindered lymphatic outflow can lead to altered fluid distribution and edema. The primary function of hypoalbuminemia in the process of edema production is still up for debate ( Gonzales et al., 2022).

          Malabsorption may affect individuals based on other characteristics because of the inheritance of similar genes through shared ancestors, racial and ethnic groups are treated somewhat like an “extended family” when examining links between genetics and nutrition. This is because the amount of gene sharing by family members can be affected by their degree of relatedness. In connection to diet, genetic variation may be at least partially to blame for variations between people in food digestion, absorption, moving through cell membranes, and catabolism (Zoppi,n.d.).

          Genetic variances may also influence individual dietary preferences. For instance, depending on a person’s genetic makeup, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which is present in foods including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and Brussels sprouts, can either taste quite bitter or be nearly tasteless. It is frequently possible to distinguish between environmental factors responsible for varying disease incidence rates by identifying unique gene markers to explain the existence of particular features or diseases in various ethnic or racial groups (Zoppi, n.d.).

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