System Architecture


Write an essay on System architecture.


Design architecture:

The information system would be based on the client server architecture. The three tier architecture would be the best options as the school should be implementing in a scaling mode.

The three tier architecture should be implemented by the school within its business infrastructure which includes Presentation layer, Data access tier and data tier. The architecture separates the business tier from the presentation tier such that to generate the client server. 


The flow of information: The flow of information related to the design architecture of the web portal should be primarily for any requires from the clients that goes to the business tier and then to the server. The response is then sent back to the required business-tier (Anderson et al. 2015). 

Proposed system

The architecture should be comprised of a simple architecture which should not be very complex and complicated for the use of the school employees. The installation of three tier set architecture within the School infrastructure would be helpful in the development process of its infrastructure as the services would be made available in the web portal only. 

Advantages of the proposed system:

The client server would be containing the presentation logic such that to facilitate the scaling oppress of the various processes

The proposed system would be helpful in reducing down on the resources that could have been required has the online system architecture not been implemented within the school infrastructure

The reduction of the resources owing to the implementation of the new information system would be beveling more resources of the school to be available for addressing the request being made by the clients 

The structure of the new system would be very simple and easy to handle and interp0eet for the workers of the school

The new information system would be helpful in redbug the data traffic on the network. This would help the school in addressing more client requests and within the shorter duration of time as well. 

The implementation of the new system would be enabling the school to ne having adequate performance power such that to handle the request being made by the clients in an effective manager (Rowe 2015)

Disadvantage of the proposed system

The main disadvantage of the new system is that the changes being made in the logic of the business would not be automatically reflected on the server. The implementation of the new changes within the architecture of the school would be requiring the installation a distribution of software related to the client side. 

The server performance suffers a lot if the volume of the request becomes very high

The data being managed or generated by the system could not be easily ported to the debase server platforms

Cost and benefit issues of the client server and file server designs

The system helps in securing the network load and reducing the response time

The step helps in facilitating with the down siding or expansion of the network and the maintenance of the same in an efficient way

It also helps in eradicating the requirements for alternation of the capability of the large scale central server

Physical and logical network topology 

The topology to be used for the new system would be the star topology. The dark topology would be helping in the sharing of information to each and every node of a network system through a single connected hub. Now, as the school administration, teacher and staff would be requiring the access of information in a simultaneous manner, the star topology would be enabling three in acquiring useful information through the utilization of the star topology wherein the information through the central node is transmitted to each and every node of the network through the central hub.

List of the hardware that will be required for Willow brook

Hardware requirements for the system being proposed to be installed within the school premises could be illustrated as follows:

Database server

Web server


Application server

Access point veto the server

System design specification document

Overview of the module/ components:

The proposed system should comprise of three components including the students, teachers and the administration related to the school. The primary attributes of the three competes can be illustrated by the following comp0oienenst:

Login for school admin, student, and teachers

Managing the details of their exam

Managing the details of the teachers, students, payment system, exams and others

Managing the details of the exams

Mainstreaming the details of the subjects

Managing toe details of the students

Detailed description of the proposed system

(Source: Created by Author)

Relationship and structure

Dependencies among the carious modules should be such that the attributes fiord the students, teachers and the admin of the school must depend on the login module

Types of users:

There are two types of users viz., the registered and unregistered users. The registered users include the users who are registered with the school while the unregistered users are the guest users. 

System Design Part B

Task 5: Application development methodology for the Willow brook system

The Willbrook system would be utilizing the placation of the agile software development methodology for the development of the new information system. The agile method incorporates the utilization of a type of incremental model which helps developing the software in incremental and rapid cycles. The cycle includes the testing of each of the release such that to check if the quality is being maintained in each and every step of the new Information system. The agile development mythology is the latest in the software development system which has been adopted by serious originations all around the globe. The agile development method would be helping the school administration to accomplish the objectives by providing a win situation for the providers and the clients as well. 


Figure 2: Agile software development model

(Source: Chikhale and Mansouri 2015)

Advantages and disadvantages of object oriented, structured and agile development

Agile development


Provides customer satisfaction by continuous and rapid delivery of the new infraction system

Emphasizes on the people and they interactions instead of tolls an processes

Provides continuous attention to the good design and technical excellence

Develops the software and delvers the same in a frequent manner


Lacks emphasis on documentation ad necessary designing

Project can be easy taken off track in case the customer requirements is not clear about the final outcome of the software development project

Difficult to access the method required in delivering the software deliverables required at the beginning of the development process (Turner, Ledwith and Kelly 2012)

Object oriented development


Objective oriented methodology related to the software development process incorporates the techniques of reducing the eminence, code reusing, improving reliability, real world modeling and proving flexibility to the development process. 

The main objective of the meted is to endure that the new system has a longer life by encapsulating the process invokes with the development process within the system (Dennis, Wixom and Tegarden 2015).


Wide scale object oriented system is unproved wherein the information system spoliations including the accounting and payroll could not get any benefits from the approach

The object- oriented method can be applicable to the graphical workstation systems such that there is no emphasizing need for it within the mainstream business system

Structure oriented development


The stricter development method utilizes the logical data modeling to determine the natures and the relationship between the information system and its viability.

The data flow modeling as utilized in the method helps in determining the ways in which that data changes from one entity to another in the process

The method incorporates thorough and deep analysis of the system such that any chances of misunderstanding at the beginning of the project are eradicated (Farooq et al 2015)


The major drawback of the structured development process is that it requires a great deal of time. If the school requires too much time for analyzing the new project, it would be difficult in developing the new information system within the estimated time line.  Moreover, the method includes a large delay between the initiation of the project and the delivery of the new system.

The system requires a good deal of training of the employees for understanding the implementation process of the development method such that improper training could be costing the school with more amount of time and money for training the employees with the difficult system (Barzel and Barr 2013)

Task 6: Testing

Acceptance testing is performed to determine the right outcome of the project. Acceptance testing is carried out in this project development to determine the results that the output results are correct or not. In the starting of the project, the targeted output is set by the software developer; if the targeted output is matched with the result then the project outcome is right otherwise acceptance testing is performed to know the output. The main aim of this testing is to collaborate with the school’s requirements and to fulfill those requirements. 

Acceptance testing is the black box testing. Black box testing means that the user who is performing the user acceptance testing is not aware of the structure of the coding of the project. If the user is not known about the code of the project then this type of testing is performed. In this paper, the user is not known about the coding so this is performing to check the data. It is also known as the customer acceptance testing.  It is performed when the system is developed by the external developer.  It is the final confirmation that is taken from the client before the final production of the project or any application.

Specific groups of people who need training on the new system

Managerial accountant

The managerial accountant is responsible for analyzing the SDLC phase as the d3signers assess their responsibilities as users. The training program for assenting the design oases should be given the managerial accountant such that to help the designers with the design process and helping with the feasibility analysis of the same.

System analyst

The system analyst should be well trained with the overall functionalism of the SDLC as he is responsible for analyzing and maintaining each and every phase of the SDLC (Rajput and Litoriya 2014).


The programmer is responsible for maintaining the SDLC phases by making modifications to the system and phasing the errors involved in the process. Thus, he should be providing training on the physical design and the conversion phase which involves the testing, coding and debugging the system programs.

Information System Manager

The Information System Manager is responsible for managing all the activities involved with the information system. Thus, he should be provided adequate training about all the opuses involved with the SDLC phases.

Financial Vice President

The Financial Vice President is usually involved with the system analysis phases. Thus, as a member of steering committee, he should be trained with the overall oases involved with the SDLC (Binder, Aillaud and Schilli 2014).

Internal auditor

The internal auditor is responsible for regulating the system analysis phase when the security requirements of the new information system is determined. The auditor is also responsible for testing the cornels of the design phase in order to ensure their adequacy.  Thus, the auditor should be properly trained with the operation and maintenance phase such that he would be able to perform routine audit tests during the design phase.

Task 8: Data conversion plan

Plan for data conversion and system changeover

Scripting the operating procedures: The step involves the writing of the operating procedures which involves the detailed physical system design haze, implementation and conversion phase.

Developing process and program controls: The step involves the development if controls related to the physical system design phase, implementation and conversion phase.

Identifying the system design: The step involves the identification of the system design in the conceptual system design phase.

Developing a logical model for the information system: It is the step that involves the development of the logical model for the information system concerned with the conceptual system design phase.

Identification of the administrative and external controls: It is the step that involves the determination of the controls related with the administrative system concerned with the conceptual system design phase.

Testing of the new system: The step invokes with the testing of the perforce of the new information system to be inhaled in the school related to the implementation and conversion phase.

Training of the personnel: The step involves with the training of the individual involved with the development of the new information system related to the operation and maintenance as well as the implementation and conversion phase. 

Evaluating the existing system: The step involves the evaluation of the performance of the existing system such that to identify the scope of further improvement involves with the system analysis phase.

Evaluating the system benefits: The step usually involves with the analysis of the achievement of the new system related to the operations and maintenance phase.

Modifying the altering programs: The step involves the modification of the system and programs if required in the operation and maintenance phase.

Analyzing the TQM (Total Quality Management) performance measures: The step requires the evolution of the overall performance of the new system especially in the operations, maintenance and system analysis phases.

Conducting feasibility analysis: The step involves the conduction of the feasibility test which is required to be conducted at all the phases of the SDLC.

Aligning the development plan with the objectives of school: This is the last step of the data conversion and system changeover plan which invoices the alight of the development plan for the new system in the system analysis phase.  

Method to be used for the system changeover

TQM (Total Quality Management): The Total Quality Management can be used as the method for evaluating of the overall performance of the New Information System to be installed within the school in=restructure. The method should be dealing with the various oases of the system development processes especially in the operations, maintenance and system analysis phases.


Anderson, D., Sweeney, D., Williams, T., Camm, J., and Cochran, J. 2015. An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making. Cengage Learning.

Barzel, R. and Barr, A.H., 2013. Physically-based modeling for computer graphics: a structured approach. Morgan Kaufmann

Binder, J., Aillaud, L.I. and Schilli, L., 2014. The Project Management Cocktail Model: An Approach for Balancing Agile and ISO 21500. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 119, pp.182-191.

Chen, C., Delmas, M. and Lieberman, M. 2013. Production frontier methodologies and efficiency as a performance measure in strategic management research. Strat. Mgmt. J., 36(1), pp.19-36.

Chikhale, M. and Mansouri, M. 2015. An Agile and Collaborative Framework for Effective Governance to Enhance Management in Large-Scale Enterprise Business Systems: The Case of Apple Inc. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 16(3), pp.283-293.

De Flander, J. 2014. Great strategists say “no”. Strategic Direction, 30(4), pp.31-32.

Dennis, A., Wixom, B.H. and Tegarden, D., 2015. Systems analysis and design: An object-oriented approach with UML. John Wiley & Sons.

Farooq, M.S., Ali, A., Abid, K. and Abid, A., 2015. Learning Stack: Structured, Object Oriented, Generic, and Design Pattern Approach. Journal Of Faculty Of Engineering & Technology, 21(2), pp.191-203.

Fazlollahtabar, H. and Abbasi, A., 2012. A computer integrated framework for e-Learning control systems based on data flow diagrams. system, 5, p.6.

Fritzson, P., 2014. Principles of object-oriented modeling and simulation with Modelica 3.3: a cyber-physical approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Johnsen, Å. 2015. Strategic Management Thinking and Practice in the Public Sector: A Strategic Planning for All Seasons?. Financial Accountability & Management, 31(3), pp.243-268.

Panzarino, M. 2012. This Is How Apple’s Top Secret Product Development Process Works. [online] The Next Web. Available at: [Accessed 29 Mar. 2016].

Rajput, G.S. and Litoriya, R., 2014. Corad Agile Method for Agile Software Cost Estimation. Open Access Library Journal, 1(03), p.1.

Robichaud, L. B., and Anantatmula, V. S. 2012. Greening project management practices for sustainable construction. Journal of Management in Engineering,27(1), 48-57.

Rowe, S. F. 2015. Project management for small projects. Management Concepts Inc..

Shenhar, A., 2015. What is Strategic Project Leadership?. Open Economics and Management Journal, 2(1).

Turner, R., Ledwith, A., and Kelly, J. 2012. Project management in small to medium-sized enterprises: Matching processes to the nature of the firm.International Journal of Project Management, 28(8), 744-755. is
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