The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Discuss about the Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

Introduction

In this paper, article “Thomas Kuhn: the man who changed the way the world looked at science” is selected to review for analyzing the effectiveness of article and its results. Below is the review of article is depicted.

Article Objectives

The main objective of this article is to review the main findings of Thomas Kuhn’s book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” and to depict his contribution in explaining the development of science. The success of book and along with the criticism of others on its findings is depicted by author to explain the development of science and related concept. The authors have presented arguments which make the research of Kuhn significant to understand the fundamental changes in the general concepts and experimental disciplines of science (Kindi and Arabatzis, 2013). Also, the author has aimed to present the thought of Kuhn in relation to the development of principles and concepts of science.

Theoretical Base

This article is based on the “grounded theory” as in this systematic research is conducted by the author to generate theory in relation to the book of Kuhn. The previously collected data is reviewed in this article to depict the contribution of this philosopher in changing the perspectives of people for the field of science. It is the theoretical base of this article to systematically present the contribution of Kuhn in structuring the revaluation of science domain (Bar-Am, 2014). Through this, Kuhn’s point of view regarding the development of scientific concepts and principles is explained in this article. In this way, ground theory is the basis of this article.

Conceptual underpinnings

In this article, the author has explained the ‘paradigm shift’ concept of Kuhn. It is explained about this concept that the philosopher provided opinion and rules of investigating a problem systematically and to solve them effectively.  Some examples of previous investigation such as Aristotle, Galileo and Newton are explained in proper manner to present the concept. Apart from this, the author presented Kuhn cycle to present the steps of investigating a problem and to provide solution. Normal science, model crisis, model revolution and paradigm shift are four consecutive steps, which are explained by author in this article to present the concept of ‘paradigm shift’ of science domain (Drummond, 2012).

Arguments

In this article, several arguments are presented by the author in regard to the structure of scientific revolutions. The main argument of this article is regarding the concept of science. It argues that revolution in science is not a steady progress that accumulates new ideas. An occasional revolutionary explosion of knowledge is tended to lead discoveries in the field of science. Change in intellectual circumstances and possibilities causes evaluation of theory and principles in science (Rabinovich and Morton, 2012). The author argued Whig interpretation of scientific history for explaining the nature of scientific process. In this, importance of communities of scientists in paradigm shift is also argued by the author. He stated that it promotes the development of scientific principles and academic disciplines (Jacobs, 2013). In addition to this, the importance of data is also determined important in the scientific research. Without data, it is not possible to conduct the data.   

Methods

The method of author to appreciate the Thomas Kuhn’s view on the nature of scientific revolution includes the analysis of qualitative information. The information available regarding the book of Kuhn and about the philosopher is the main method used in this article. The example from the original book is quoted in study to explain the rules of solving problems and to provide solutions (Turnpenny et al., 2010). In addition to this, real examples are included by this author to explain the concept of scientific progress in effective manner. Secondary sources are used in this article to brief the theory and principle of Kuhn in regard to the scientific revolution. Qualitative method is used by the author to review the findings of Kuhn’s concepts and research.

Sources and credibility of evidence   

In this article, sources and credibility of evidences of this article is quite strong as in this data is obtained directly from the book. This makes sources more reliable for the analysis of Kuhn’s view regarding the scientific revolution’s nature. Internet sources are used by the author to present the evidences in creditable manner (Rawlins, 2011). But at the same time, inclusion of only secondary sources affects the credibility of evidences as they were collected by the different researchers for the other purpose. It could have negative impact on the reliability of research outcomes (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber, 2014). In this, secondary sources of this article ensure low level of credibility.

Place in the literature

In this current business organization, firms strive to compete and to survive due to fierce competition. For creating competencies, it is critical to make informed decisions in business for which analysis of internal and external environment is critical. The article concludes the way of recognizing the problem successfully and finding solutions. The findings of this article are quite effective to add new knowledge and to help business for better decision-making (Oppenheimer and Kelso, 2015). The scientific process of analyzing and problem can be included in the literature of management to support the decision-making and business growth.  Thus, the author’s research on the Kuhn’s book has a great place in the domain of decision-making and consequently management (Richards and Daston, 2016).

Soundness of Conclusions

In this article, the results are concluded in effective manner by relating the approach of conducting scientific research with Kuhn’s experience of facilitating paradigm shift from Whiggish to Kuhnian. The author has effectively sum up the findings by providing comparable examples at the end of the article. The length of the article is quite appropriate and includes all findings and outcomes.  Due to this, this article is sufficient to provide readers an overview about key theories and arguments. But, it does not provide used evidences in this research within the conclusion.  It also lacks suggestion for managers of the real business organization. But at the end, it raised discussion question to make in-depth study of the Kuhn’s book.

Potential theoretical contribution

This article is quite effective to make contribution in the theoretical aspect of scientific research and decision-making. In this, Kuhn’s approach of developing new paradigm is discussed that has potential to develop new theory related to the decision making in business. This article includes the detailed examination of scientific revolutions’ structure along with the history of some previous examples (Kahn, 2013). This provides sufficient data to make theoretical contribution in the literature of management.

Ability to be applied by managers        

The author of this article “Thomas Kuhn: the man who changed the way the world looked at science” has developed useful theory in terms of the applicability in the real business scenario. It provides range of examples to depict the process and nature of scientific revolution and to create new paradigm (Gattei, 2012). The findings can be applied in the business easily to analyze problem and to present solutions. Through this, a new way of thinking can be ensured that may help to bring innovations. It can be useful to make appropriate decisions and to gain competencies (Latham, 2014). This article presents process of facilitating new way of thinking regarding a problem and due to this it can be applied by mangers easily.

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the analysis of this article that the arguments in this article were presented clearly by giving examples. This brings clarity and simplicity in the theory and makes the findings more sensible. Due to this, it has possibility to contribute in the management field.

References

Bar-Am, N. (2014). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 50th anniversary. USA: University of Chicago Press

Drummond, H. (2012). Guide to decision making: getting it more right than wrong. USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Gattei, S. (2012). Ashgate New Critical Thinking in Philosophy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Jacobs, S. (2013). Models of scientific community: Charles Sanders Peirce to Thomas Kuhn. Interdisciplinary science reviews.

Kahn, J.P. (2013). Angst: Origins of anxiety and depression. UK: Oxford University Press.

Kindi, V., and Arabatzis, T. (2013). Kuhn’s the structure of scientific revolutions revisited. UK: Routledge.

Latham, R. (2014). The Oxford handbook of science fiction. UK: Oxford University Press.

LoBiondo-Wood, G. and Haber, J. (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. USA: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Oppenheimer, D.M. and Kelso, E. (2015). Information processing as a paradigm for decision making. Annual review of psychology, 66, p. 277-294.

Rabinovich, A. and Morton, T.A. (2012). Unquestioned answers or unanswered questions: Beliefs about science guide responses to uncertainty in climate change risk communication. Risk Analysis, 32(6), pp.992-1002.

Rawlins, M.D. (2011). Therapeutics, evidence and decision-making. Australia: CRC Press.

Richards, R. J., and Daston, L. (2016). Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions at Fifty: Reflections on a Science Classic. USA: University of Chicago Press.

Turnpenny, J., Jones, M. and Lorenzoni, I. (2010). Where now for post-normal science? A critical review of its development, definitions, and uses. Science, Technology & Human Values, p.0162243910385789.

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