Write 3 paragraphs of the Dilemma 4 ” The need for Inclusiveness” in the UN. This was taken from the book (The United Nations in the 21st CEntury) the fifth edition by Margaret P. Karns_ Karen A. Ming

Write 3 paragraphs of the Dilemma 4 ” The need for Inclusiveness” in the UN. This was taken from the book (The United Nations in the 21st CEntury) the fifth edition by Margaret P. Karns_ Karen A. Mingst_ Alynna Lyon. You are more than welcome to use another source of information with its citations.

example of the paragraphs: 

  • Paragraph 1: Briefly summarize the dilemma and your views about it, in your own words. Feel free to cite the reading and any other sources. Remember, this is an op-ed so you should come right out with your views on the dilemma that you choose!
  • Paragraph 2: What is the preferable outcome for this challenge in the next 15-25 years? For who is it preferable? This is your view.
  • Paragraph 3: What is the probable outcome for this challenge in the next 15-25 years? Why? This is your view

 REVIEW at least a few op-eds for examples of how to write in this way: NY Times,  The Hill,  Guardian (UK)

Dilemma 4: The Need for Inclusiveness

Since 2000, the UN Security Council has paid increased attention to inclusiveness in relation to conflict prevention, peacebuilding, and protection of civilians, as noted earlier. Resolution 1325 (2000), in particular, recognized that women and girls are often disproportionately harmed by armed conflict and called for special measures to protect women and girls from sexual violence in conflicts as well as increased presence and participation of women in peace and security initiatives. Still, significant gaps remain in the implementation of the women, peace, and security agenda, and especially in the mandate to improve protection. Some argue that the focus on an inclusive approach to peace and security has been more rhetorical than real. A 2014 report found that progress on inclusiveness has triggered pushback by members of the Security Council, who pro- test that the focus of the council should be specifically on situations of “sexual violence in armed conflict and post-conflict situations” and not more broadly on “conflict-related sexual violence.”109 In spite of several council resolutions to address the gaps in the implementation of Resolution 1325, problems persist. And it remains to be seen how well Resolution 2272 (2016) authorizing the UNSG to take action against peacekeepers charged with sexual abuse is implemented.

The recruitment of women peacekeepers—albeit in relatively small numbers—is yet another step in response to the dilemma of inclusiveness and, most importantly, to meet the very real needs for the special roles women can play in peace operations. It has been hoped that the presence of women in mixed-gender

Maintaining International Peace and Security 183

units would curb the problem of sexual abuse. Yet the numbers thus far make definitive conclusions difficult. Resolution 2122 (2013), for example, noted that the Secretariat had not met the council’s call as of that point for more women protection advisers for deployments in CAR, Côte d’Ivoire, Darfur, DRC, Mali, Somalia, and South Sudan. Finally, as noted in Chapter 2, the Security Council has since the mid-1990s under the Arria formula invited NGOs and other non-state actors to participate in informal council sessions. Beginning in 2012 and now written into Resolution 2242 (2015) is a provision for gender advisers, women protection advisers, and representatives of concerned civil society groups to participate in such sessions. Thus, the council has tried to address the demand for inclusiveness and the need for greater consultation with those who can provide a clearer sense of what is happening on the ground and in the field where UN operations are already underway or where conflict and violence may have erupted and been brought to the council’s attention.

Traditionally, international peace and security have meant states’ security and the defense of states’ territorial integrity from external threats or attacks. As suggested by our discussion of humanitarian intervention and the R2P norm, the concept of human security—the security of human beings in the face of many different kinds of threats—has begun to take hold. These concerns are reflected in the discussions in Chapters 5, 6, and 7 about the need to eradicate poverty and reduce the inequalities exacerbated by globalization, promote sustainable development and greater respect for human rights norms, and address the growing security threats posed by epidemics, displacement, and environmental degradation.

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